Special Issue "Updates on Genetics and Management in Squamous Cell Carcinoma"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 128
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common cancers involving heterogeneous malignancies of skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts. Due to its ability to metastasize, the treatment for SCC includes surgical resection, followed by postoperative radiotherapy in certain cases. While over 80% of the cases can be cured if detected early, survival of patients with advanced stage disease remains at ~20–60%. Given the limited success of targeted treatments and cytotoxic chemotherapy against locally advanced or metastatic SCC, the current clinical focus has turned to immunotherapy with antibodies targeting T cell inhibitory receptors that function as immune checkpoints, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1). However, the overall survival with this approach remains low. As with other solid malignancies, current models of tumorigenesis hold that SCCs are driven by the acquisition of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Although SCC is considered to be a vastly heterogeneous disease in respect to the specific mutations and gene expression changes in a given tumor, several signaling pathways have been shown to be dysregulated in SCC through genetic and epigenetic alterations such as those involving TP53, PIK3CA, NOTCH1, SMAD4, CDKN2A, and FAT1. Other observed alterations associated with SCC include overexpression of EGFR, cyclin D1 or p53, multiple DNA copy number gains, upregulation of telomerase and aneuploidy. While recent studies have provided a snapshot of a variety of molecular alterations in SCC, a comprehensive analysis of molecular alterations is required to identify the key genetic drivers and mechanisms underlying the disease progression.
As genetic changes may not only promote tumorigenesis but also impact the expression of key immunomodulatory cytokines or ligands within tumor microenvironment in order to escape an effective immune response, understanding and dissecting the heterogeneous multi-omic changes driving the progression of SCC is a complex problem that calls for multidisciplinary approaches. This Special Issue will highlight the current updates on genetics and management of squamous cell carcinoma as well as future prospects on genetic mechanisms that enable SCC tumorigenesis.
Dr. Evgeny Izumchenko
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- squamous cell carcinoma
- postoperative radiotherapy
- targeted treatment
- signaling pathways
- gene expression
- genetic mechanisms