Special Issue "New Heating and Cooling Concepts"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Bjarne W. Olesen

International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy – ICIEE, Department of CivilEngineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
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Interests: civil engineering; construction and mechanics indoor climate, heating, refrigeration, ventilation and sustainability in the construction industry
Guest Editor
Dr. Ongun Berk Kazanci

International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy – ICIEE, Department of CivilEngineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
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Interests: low temperature heating and high temperature cooling systems (particularly water-based radiant heating and cooling systems) and their applications in low-energy and plus-energy buildings, their integration with renewable energy resources, thermodynamic analyses of HVAC systems and building components, human thermal comfort in buildings, building energy performance simulation, applied Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Heating, cooling, and ventilation systems are responsible for a large part of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. A paradigm shift from fossil fuel based heating and cooling systems to more energy- and resource-efficient heating and cooling systems is necessary, and this shift should happen without sacrificing, and preferably by improving, occupant comfort and health.

It is not possible to think of buildings and their heating and cooling systems as separate parts. Therefore, the whole system structure from the heating or cooling source to the indoor terminal unit should be considered, and this requires a holistic thinking and optimization. With the ever-improving technology, buildings and their system are connected to each other and it is necessary to think of buildings as a part of a larger energy infrastructure and network.

Given the recent research trends and needs, this Special Issue will cover the state-of-the-art in heating, cooling, and ventilation systems in, mainly but not limited to, buildings. The focus will be on the innovative applications and control approaches, which could reduce the energy use remarkably, advance the integration of renewable energy resources into buildings, and improve occupant comfort and health. 

Prof. Bjarne W. Olesen
Dr. Ongun Berk Kazanci
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Radiant heating and cooling
  • phase change materials
  • evaporative cooling
  • ventilative cooling
  • thermal energy storage
  • renewable energy
  • personal environmental control
  • air cleaning
  • model predictive control

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Radiators, Underfloor and Ceiling Heater Towards the Definition of a Reference Ideal Heater for Energy Efficient Buildings
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2477; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122477
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 24 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
Heat emitters, as the primary devices used in space heating, cover a fundamental role in the energy efficient use of buildings. In the search for an optimized design, heating devices should be compared with a benchmark emitter with maximum heat emission efficiency. However,
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Heat emitters, as the primary devices used in space heating, cover a fundamental role in the energy efficient use of buildings. In the search for an optimized design, heating devices should be compared with a benchmark emitter with maximum heat emission efficiency. However, such an ideal heater still needs to be defined. In this paper we perform an analysis of heat transfer in a European reference room, considering surface effects of thermal radiation and computing the induced operative temperature (op.t.) both analytically and numerically. Our ideal heater is the one determining the highest op.t. By means of functional optimization, we analyse trends such as the variation of operative temperature with radiator panel dimensions, finding optimal configurations. To make our definitions as general as possible, we address panel radiators, convectors, underfloor (UFH) and ceiling heater. We obtain analytical formulas for the operative temperature induced by panel radiators and identify the 10-type as our ideal radiator, while the UFH provides the best performance overall. Regarding specifically UFH and ceiling heaters, we find optimal sizes providing maximum op.t. The analytical method and qualitative results reported in this paper can be generalized and adopted in most studies concerning the efficiency of different heat emitter types in building enclosures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Heating and Cooling Concepts)
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Open AccessArticle Efficiency in Heating Operation of Low-Temperature Radiant Systems Working under Dynamic Conditions in Different Kinds of Buildings
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2399; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122399
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
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Abstract
In recent years many types of radiant systems have been installed in buildings. Meanwhile, practitioners debate on which thermal inertia of radiant systems fit better and which control strategies should be better in buildings, depending on the insulation level and thermal inertia of
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In recent years many types of radiant systems have been installed in buildings. Meanwhile, practitioners debate on which thermal inertia of radiant systems fit better and which control strategies should be better in buildings, depending on the insulation level and thermal inertia of the structures. In particular, in new and retrofitted buildings, where the envelope presents high levels of insulation, it is argued if it is better to have low or high inertia radiant systems for controlling the indoor operative temperature and avoid overheating, especially in mid-seasons when the outdoor temperature is mild and solar radiation is high. For this purpose a room with three types of insulation level has been analysed combining different types of structures (masonry, and light and timber walls) and three types of radiant systems (classic wet floor, dry floor, and ceiling). Two operation modes have been simulated: fixed supply temperature and variable temperature according to the outdoor temperature. The results looked at the embedded and control efficiency, the energy performance in case of coupling with a water to water heat pump and the long-term possible overheating analysis. The embedded and control efficiency in dynamic conditions has been evaluated and compared with different possible definitions, in particular with steady state conditions, former EN15316-2-2007, and current EN15316-2-2017. New values for the current standard are suggested based on the results of this work, since the former and existing values overestimate the seasonal losses of floor and radiant systems in heating conditions. The paper shows that working at variable temperature according to the outdoor air temperature leads to longer operation time. The temperature, on average, lowers, and coupling the radiant system with a water to water heat pump leads to lower consumptions in the case of variable supply temperature compared to fixed supply temperature over the season. The seasonal coefficient of performance of the whole system, i.e. the heat pump and auxiliary pumps, leads to overall lower energy consumption in the case of variable supply temperature. The simulations did not show any relevant problem of discomfort from December to February. Overtemperature effects in terms of operative temperatures over the dead band of the control systems are not especially due to the radiant system, but they also occur in any case with ideal convective systems. The paper demonstrates that in general the radiant floor systems perform better than radiant ceilings in heating conditions and there is no evidence that dry floor systems perform better than wet screed systems in all the types of buildings regardless of the level of insulation and thermal inertia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Heating and Cooling Concepts)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Energy Use in the Mexican Residential Sector by Using Two Approaches Regarding the Behavior of the Occupants
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112136
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 27 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
An analysis of the energy use in the Mexican residential sector is carried out. To achieve this, two approaches are taken into account. The first one is the usage of low-energy devices, and the second one is the decrease of their time of
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An analysis of the energy use in the Mexican residential sector is carried out. To achieve this, two approaches are taken into account. The first one is the usage of low-energy devices, and the second one is the decrease of their time of use. These two approaches are considered in the calculation method with random values of power and time of usage. The energy activities are divided into air-conditioning, illumination & appliances, and refrigeration. After total annual use is validated with the actual values of energy use in 2015, a sensitivity analysis of the approaches used separately and together is carried out in order to determine the potential of energy saving. Thereby, it is found that the most influential parameter for energy saving is the extensive acquisition of more efficient technologies of illumination & appliances, followed by the decrease of use of the same illumination & appliances. Furthermore, with an integrated approach that takes into account both the use of efficient devices and the reduction of their use for the three energy activities, a maximum of 19.67 TWh is calculated in 2015 for the Mexican residential sector. This approach is therefore expected to have a reliable basis for the development and improvement of policies that help to drive energy savings in an extensive manner in Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Heating and Cooling Concepts)
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Open AccessArticle Mapping Relevant Parameters for Efficient Operation of Low-Temperature Heating Systems in Nordic Single-Family Dwellings
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101973
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to map the parameters that have the greatest impact on the environmental impact of heating systems usually used in Nordic single-family dwellings. The study focused on mapping the technical requirements for efficient operation of heating systems in
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The aim of this study was to map the parameters that have the greatest impact on the environmental impact of heating systems usually used in Nordic single-family dwellings. The study focused on mapping the technical requirements for efficient operation of heating systems in a broader context. The results suggest that the ability of a heating system to be operated with a low-temperature water supply depends to a large extent on the heating demand of a building. It was shown that an increase in the water flow rate in hydronic circuits would significantly increase the thermal efficiency from analyzed heating systems. This increase would not increase the pumping power need, nor would it create noise problems in distribution network if the distribution pipes and thermostatic valves were properly selected. However, this increase in water flow rate improved the efficiency of considered closed-loop heat pump. It was further shown that the efficiency of the heat pump could be additionally improved by halving the energy needs for the domestic hot-water and circulators. The main conclusion from this study is that exergy usage, CO2 emission and thereby environmental impact are significantly lower for heating systems that are operated with small temperature drops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Heating and Cooling Concepts)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Characterisation of Micro Flat Aluminium Heat Pipe Arrays by Varying Working Fluid and Inclination Angle
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071052
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A micro heat pipe array is desirable owing to its high heat transfer capacity, compact size, and high surface–volume ratio compared with conventional heat pipes. In this study, micro flat aluminium heat pipe arrays (MF-AHPA) were developed and systematically characterised by varying working
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A micro heat pipe array is desirable owing to its high heat transfer capacity, compact size, and high surface–volume ratio compared with conventional heat pipes. In this study, micro flat aluminium heat pipe arrays (MF-AHPA) were developed and systematically characterised by varying working fluid and inclination angle. Three MF-AHPAs with different working fluids, i.e., acetone, cyclopentane, and n-hexane, were fabricated. The acetone MF-AHPA achieved the best thermal performance. The underlying mechanism is the small flow viscous friction and small shearing force of liquid vapour. Additionally, the experimental results show a strong dependence of MF-AHPAs’ thermal resistance on the orientation due to the gravitational effect on axial liquid distribution. Finally, a criterion is proposed to determine the optimal inclination angle of the MF-AHPA. In the present study, a volumetric fraction (αa,c) of 74 ± 7% has been shown to well predict an optimal inclination angle of the MF-AHPAs with various working fluids and heat loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Heating and Cooling Concepts)
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Open AccessArticle A New Mixture Refrigerant for Space Heating Air Source Heat Pump: Theoretical Modelling and Performance Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040622
Received: 17 March 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
Air source heat pump (ASHP) is becoming a substitute for small coal boilers in rural residential buildings of North China. However, the application of ASHP faces challenges of heating capacity, energy efficiency, ozone depletion potential (ODP) and global warming potential (GWP). Proper refrigerant
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Air source heat pump (ASHP) is becoming a substitute for small coal boilers in rural residential buildings of North China. However, the application of ASHP faces challenges of heating capacity, energy efficiency, ozone depletion potential (ODP) and global warming potential (GWP). Proper refrigerant is a key factor influences the performance of ASHP. In this paper, a new mixture refrigerant named RHR-1 is proposed, which aimed to improve energy efficiency, eliminate ODP and reduce GWP of ASHP refrigerant. The performance of RHR-1 was analyzed and compared with commonly used refrigerants including R134a, R410A, R407C and R22 in terms of heating coefficient of performance (COPh), compression ratio (CR) and discharging temperature (DT). The results show that, under the design cases, where supply water temperatures vary from 35 °C to 50 °C and outdoor air temperatures vary from −15 °C to 15 °C, the COPh of RHR-1 are in the range of 2.43–4.93. The COPh of RHR-1 is higher than other candidates when the supply water temperature is above 40 °C. The CR and DT of RHR-1 are in medium levels of the compared samples. A logarithmic regression equation was deduced to get the relationship of COPh with temperature difference between supply water and outdoor air which suggested the temperature difference should be controlled within 47.5 °C to get reasonable COPh. In addition, RHR-1 has no ODP, and its GWP is 279, which is much lower than other candidates. RHR-1 could be a reasonable refrigerant used in ASHP for space heating in North China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Heating and Cooling Concepts)
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Open AccessArticle Seabed Sediment as an Annually Renewable Heat Source
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020290
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
Thermal energy collected from the sediment layer under a water body has been suggested for use as a renewable heat source for a low energy network. A prototype system for using this sediment energy was installed in Suvilahti, Vaasa, in 2008 and is
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Thermal energy collected from the sediment layer under a water body has been suggested for use as a renewable heat source for a low energy network. A prototype system for using this sediment energy was installed in Suvilahti, Vaasa, in 2008 and is still in use. It provides a carbon-free heating and cooling solution as well as savings in energy costs for 42 houses. To be a real, renewable heat source, the thermal energy of the sediment layer needs to replenish annually. The goal of this paper is to verify the possible cooling or annual heat regeneration. The sediment temperatures were measured and analyzed in the years 2013–2015. The data were compared to the same period in 2008–2009. All measurements were taken in the same place. This paper also confirms the potential of the sediment heat, especially in the seabed sediment, using the temperature differences between the lowest and the highest values for the year. The results demonstrate that the collection of the heat energy does not cause permanent cooling of the sediment. This result was obtained by calculating the temperature difference between measurements in the warmest month and the month with the coldest temperatures. This indicates the extracted energy. The difference was found to be around 9.5 °C in 2008–2009, rising to around 11 °C for the years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015. This indicates the loaded energy. The energy utilization is sustainable: the sediment temperature has not permanently decreased despite the full use of the network for the heating and cooling of houses between 2008 and 2015. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Heating and Cooling Concepts)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Personal Climatization Systems—A Review on Existing and Upcoming Concepts
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010035
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 22 December 2018
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Abstract
To accomplish the current climate goals of the federal republic of Germany, energy efficiency within the building and automotive sector must improve considerably. One possible way to reduce the high amount of energy required for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) is the introduction
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To accomplish the current climate goals of the federal republic of Germany, energy efficiency within the building and automotive sector must improve considerably. One possible way to reduce the high amount of energy required for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) is the introduction of personal climatization systems in combination with the extension of the standardized room air temperature range. Personal systems allow improvements of climatic conditions (heating, cooling, and air quality) within sub-areas of the room instead of conditioning an entire room air volume. In this regard, personal systems are perfectly suitable for locations with local air-conditioning focal points, such as open-plan offices and vehicle cabins, where they substantially improve the energy efficiency of the entire system. This work aims to summarize previously conducted research in the area of personal climatization systems. The investigated local thermal actuators comprise fans for the generation of air movement, ventilators for the improvement of the air quality within the respiratory area of persons, water-conditioned panels for the climatization of persons via longwave radiation and conduction, radiant heaters, and combinations of the systems. Personal systems are superior to mixing ventilation regarding the improvement of the perceived air quality and thermal comfort. Furthermore, the introduced overview shows that personal climatization systems are generally more energy-efficient than conventional air-conditioning and facilitates the extension of the indoor air temperature corridor of the HVAC. Table fans and climatized seats are highly effective in connection with the improvement of personal thermal comfort. The performance of the overwhelming majority of applied personal environmental control systems is user-controlled or depends on a predefined load profile, which is generally defined person independent. Single studies reveal that effectively controlled automated systems have a similar thermal impact on a user’s thermal comfort as user-controlled ones. The implementation of an automated control system is feasible by using novel approaches such as the so-called human-centered closed loop control-platform (HCCLC-platform). The latter contains a central data server which allows asynchronous, bi-directional communication between multi-modal sensor data, user feedback systems, thermal actuators and numerical calculation models used to assess the individual thermal comfort of a person. This enables a continuous and holistic reflection of the thermal situation inside a room and the estimation of the corresponding impact on an individual’s thermal comfort. Considering the measured and simulated thermal state of a single person, the described system is capable of determining body-part-specific energy requirements that are needed to keep the overall thermal comfort level of an individual person on a high level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Heating and Cooling Concepts)
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