Special Issue "New Heating and Cooling Concepts"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Bjarne W. Olesen

International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy – ICIEE, Department of CivilEngineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
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Interests: civil engineering; construction and mechanics indoor climate, heating, refrigeration, ventilation and sustainability in the construction industry
Guest Editor
Dr. Ongun Berk Kazanci

International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy – ICIEE, Department of CivilEngineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: low temperature heating and high temperature cooling systems (particularly water-based radiant heating and cooling systems) and their applications in low-energy and plus-energy buildings, their integration with renewable energy resources, thermodynamic analyses of HVAC systems and building components, human thermal comfort in buildings, building energy performance simulation, applied Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Heating, cooling, and ventilation systems are responsible for a large part of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. A paradigm shift from fossil fuel based heating and cooling systems to more energy- and resource-efficient heating and cooling systems is necessary, and this shift should happen without sacrificing, and preferably by improving, occupant comfort and health.

It is not possible to think of buildings and their heating and cooling systems as separate parts. Therefore, the whole system structure from the heating or cooling source to the indoor terminal unit should be considered, and this requires a holistic thinking and optimization. With the ever-improving technology, buildings and their system are connected to each other and it is necessary to think of buildings as a part of a larger energy infrastructure and network.

Given the recent research trends and needs, this Special Issue will cover the state-of-the-art in heating, cooling, and ventilation systems in, mainly but not limited to, buildings. The focus will be on the innovative applications and control approaches, which could reduce the energy use remarkably, advance the integration of renewable energy resources into buildings, and improve occupant comfort and health. 

Prof. Bjarne W. Olesen
Dr. Ongun Berk Kazanci
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Radiant heating and cooling
  • phase change materials
  • evaporative cooling
  • ventilative cooling
  • thermal energy storage
  • renewable energy
  • personal environmental control
  • air cleaning
  • model predictive control

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Energy Use in the Mexican Residential Sector by Using Two Approaches Regarding the Behavior of the Occupants
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112136
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 27 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
An analysis of the energy use in the Mexican residential sector is carried out. To achieve this, two approaches are taken into account. The first one is the usage of low-energy devices, and the second one is the decrease of their time of
[...] Read more.
An analysis of the energy use in the Mexican residential sector is carried out. To achieve this, two approaches are taken into account. The first one is the usage of low-energy devices, and the second one is the decrease of their time of use. These two approaches are considered in the calculation method with random values of power and time of usage. The energy activities are divided into air-conditioning, illumination & appliances, and refrigeration. After total annual use is validated with the actual values of energy use in 2015, a sensitivity analysis of the approaches used separately and together is carried out in order to determine the potential of energy saving. Thereby, it is found that the most influential parameter for energy saving is the extensive acquisition of more efficient technologies of illumination & appliances, followed by the decrease of use of the same illumination & appliances. Furthermore, with an integrated approach that takes into account both the use of efficient devices and the reduction of their use for the three energy activities, a maximum of 19.67 TWh is calculated in 2015 for the Mexican residential sector. This approach is therefore expected to have a reliable basis for the development and improvement of policies that help to drive energy savings in an extensive manner in Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Heating and Cooling Concepts)
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Open AccessArticle Mapping Relevant Parameters for Efficient Operation of Low-Temperature Heating Systems in Nordic Single-Family Dwellings
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101973
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to map the parameters that have the greatest impact on the environmental impact of heating systems usually used in Nordic single-family dwellings. The study focused on mapping the technical requirements for efficient operation of heating systems in
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to map the parameters that have the greatest impact on the environmental impact of heating systems usually used in Nordic single-family dwellings. The study focused on mapping the technical requirements for efficient operation of heating systems in a broader context. The results suggest that the ability of a heating system to be operated with a low-temperature water supply depends to a large extent on the heating demand of a building. It was shown that an increase in the water flow rate in hydronic circuits would significantly increase the thermal efficiency from analyzed heating systems. This increase would not increase the pumping power need, nor would it create noise problems in distribution network if the distribution pipes and thermostatic valves were properly selected. However, this increase in water flow rate improved the efficiency of considered closed-loop heat pump. It was further shown that the efficiency of the heat pump could be additionally improved by halving the energy needs for the domestic hot-water and circulators. The main conclusion from this study is that exergy usage, CO2 emission and thereby environmental impact are significantly lower for heating systems that are operated with small temperature drops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Heating and Cooling Concepts)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Characterisation of Micro Flat Aluminium Heat Pipe Arrays by Varying Working Fluid and Inclination Angle
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071052
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
PDF Full-text (5522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A micro heat pipe array is desirable owing to its high heat transfer capacity, compact size, and high surface–volume ratio compared with conventional heat pipes. In this study, micro flat aluminium heat pipe arrays (MF-AHPA) were developed and systematically characterised by varying working
[...] Read more.
A micro heat pipe array is desirable owing to its high heat transfer capacity, compact size, and high surface–volume ratio compared with conventional heat pipes. In this study, micro flat aluminium heat pipe arrays (MF-AHPA) were developed and systematically characterised by varying working fluid and inclination angle. Three MF-AHPAs with different working fluids, i.e., acetone, cyclopentane, and n-hexane, were fabricated. The acetone MF-AHPA achieved the best thermal performance. The underlying mechanism is the small flow viscous friction and small shearing force of liquid vapour. Additionally, the experimental results show a strong dependence of MF-AHPAs’ thermal resistance on the orientation due to the gravitational effect on axial liquid distribution. Finally, a criterion is proposed to determine the optimal inclination angle of the MF-AHPA. In the present study, a volumetric fraction (αa,c) of 74 ± 7% has been shown to well predict an optimal inclination angle of the MF-AHPAs with various working fluids and heat loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Heating and Cooling Concepts)
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Open AccessArticle A New Mixture Refrigerant for Space Heating Air Source Heat Pump: Theoretical Modelling and Performance Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040622
Received: 17 March 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
Air source heat pump (ASHP) is becoming a substitute for small coal boilers in rural residential buildings of North China. However, the application of ASHP faces challenges of heating capacity, energy efficiency, ozone depletion potential (ODP) and global warming potential (GWP). Proper refrigerant
[...] Read more.
Air source heat pump (ASHP) is becoming a substitute for small coal boilers in rural residential buildings of North China. However, the application of ASHP faces challenges of heating capacity, energy efficiency, ozone depletion potential (ODP) and global warming potential (GWP). Proper refrigerant is a key factor influences the performance of ASHP. In this paper, a new mixture refrigerant named RHR-1 is proposed, which aimed to improve energy efficiency, eliminate ODP and reduce GWP of ASHP refrigerant. The performance of RHR-1 was analyzed and compared with commonly used refrigerants including R134a, R410A, R407C and R22 in terms of heating coefficient of performance (COPh), compression ratio (CR) and discharging temperature (DT). The results show that, under the design cases, where supply water temperatures vary from 35 °C to 50 °C and outdoor air temperatures vary from −15 °C to 15 °C, the COPh of RHR-1 are in the range of 2.43–4.93. The COPh of RHR-1 is higher than other candidates when the supply water temperature is above 40 °C. The CR and DT of RHR-1 are in medium levels of the compared samples. A logarithmic regression equation was deduced to get the relationship of COPh with temperature difference between supply water and outdoor air which suggested the temperature difference should be controlled within 47.5 °C to get reasonable COPh. In addition, RHR-1 has no ODP, and its GWP is 279, which is much lower than other candidates. RHR-1 could be a reasonable refrigerant used in ASHP for space heating in North China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Heating and Cooling Concepts)
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Open AccessArticle Seabed Sediment as an Annually Renewable Heat Source
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020290
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
Thermal energy collected from the sediment layer under a water body has been suggested for use as a renewable heat source for a low energy network. A prototype system for using this sediment energy was installed in Suvilahti, Vaasa, in 2008 and is
[...] Read more.
Thermal energy collected from the sediment layer under a water body has been suggested for use as a renewable heat source for a low energy network. A prototype system for using this sediment energy was installed in Suvilahti, Vaasa, in 2008 and is still in use. It provides a carbon-free heating and cooling solution as well as savings in energy costs for 42 houses. To be a real, renewable heat source, the thermal energy of the sediment layer needs to replenish annually. The goal of this paper is to verify the possible cooling or annual heat regeneration. The sediment temperatures were measured and analyzed in the years 2013–2015. The data were compared to the same period in 2008–2009. All measurements were taken in the same place. This paper also confirms the potential of the sediment heat, especially in the seabed sediment, using the temperature differences between the lowest and the highest values for the year. The results demonstrate that the collection of the heat energy does not cause permanent cooling of the sediment. This result was obtained by calculating the temperature difference between measurements in the warmest month and the month with the coldest temperatures. This indicates the extracted energy. The difference was found to be around 9.5 °C in 2008–2009, rising to around 11 °C for the years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015. This indicates the loaded energy. The energy utilization is sustainable: the sediment temperature has not permanently decreased despite the full use of the network for the heating and cooling of houses between 2008 and 2015. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Heating and Cooling Concepts)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Energy consumption upon the Mexican residential sector by using a stochastic analysis of the behavior of the occupants
Author: Ivan Oropeza Perez
Abstract: A stochastic analysis is carried out to identify the most influencing parameters of occupancy in Mexico for determining the energy consumption within its residential sector. For this, two approaches are taken into account. The first one is the usage of low-energy devices, and the second one is the decrease of their time of use. The energy consumption of a single dwelling is divided into air-conditioning, illumination & appliances, and refrigeration. Furthermore, the household stock is divided into air-conditioned and free-running (no air-conditioning) when is the case. Thereby, after the total national annual consumption is validated, a sensitivity analysis of the approaches separately and together is carried out in order to determine the potential of energy saving. Thereby, it is found that the most influencing parameter for energy saving is the extensive acquisition of more efficient technologies of illumination & appliances, followed by the decrease of use of the same illumination & appliances. Furthermore, with an integrated approach that takes into account both the use of efficient devices and the reduction of their use, a maximum of 19.67 TWh is calculated as annual energy saving in 2015 for the Mexican residential sector. With this, it is expected to have a reliable basis for the development and improvement of policies that help to drive energy savings in an extensive manner in Mexico.

Title: Photovoltaic and heat pump: rediscover a possible synergy
Author: Renato Lazzarin
DTG, University of Padova, 36100 Vicenza, Italy
Abstract: Commercial photovoltaic (PV) modules convert nowadays not more than 18-20% of the solar
radiation impinging the panel. Consequently more than 80% of solar energy is dissipated as thermal
energy. In the past a possible cooling of the PV panel was studied with the main purpose of
reducing the PV cell temperature as the cell efficiency is reduced of the order of 0.2-0.5% for every
1 °C rise. Studies were then proposed to make use of the thermal energy recovered with the main
application the preheating of Domestic Hot Water (DHW) by means of PVT panels i.e. PV modules
equipped with a heat exchange system.
The strong price reduction of PV modules and the increasing recourse to double source heat pump
system suggest to rediscover a possible synergy that had little attention in the past: driving a heat
pump by PV electricity using the PV thermal energy as a cold source. Some simple evaluations are
here proposed using glazed and unglazed configuration for the PVT, where the glazed solution
allows higher thermal efficiency with the problem of a suitable dissipation of the thermal energy in
the hot months.
In a double source ground-solar heat pump system, the dissipation might recharge the ground that
operated as a heat pump cold source during the night and in period of low insolation.

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