Special Issue "Internet of Things (IoT) 2020"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Young-Gab Kim
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Computer and Security, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, South Korea
Interests: Big Data Security; IoT Security; Security Engineering; Interoperability in Security and Data Exchange
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Internet of Things (IoT) is an environment in which things are connected to each other via the Internet and has been adopted as a promising technology by many companies such as Gartner, Cisco,and International Data Corporation (IDC). Consequently, global companies have been researching and developing IoT‐related services, technoligies and devices. However, it is difficult for all IoT thing manufacturers to develop common functions such as communication, data management, security, etc. For exmaple, IoT platforms (e.g., oneM2M, Oliot, IBM  Watson IoT, IoTivity, FIWARE etc.) are developed with individual security goals, policies, and architectures, which have their own attack surfaces and vulnerabilities. That is, they do not consider the interoperability issues among them.

This special issue aims to identify the emerged challenges in all IoT-related areas. Moreover, it will provide the up-to-date state-of-the-art for the aspects of IoT.

Topics of primary interest include but are not limited to:

  • Emergent technologies for IoT
  • Cloud infrastructure for IoT
  • Machine learning for IoT
  • Testbeds for IoT
  • Interoperability in data, service, and security
  • Standardization for IoT
  • Security and privacy for IoT
  • Case studies experience reports on IoT

Prof. Young-Gab Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • IoT Platform
  • IoT Architecture
  • Security & Privacy
  • Interoperability
  • Testbed
  • Machine learning
  • Cloud
  • Standardization

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Evolution and Testing of NB-IoT Solutions
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7903; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217903 - 07 Nov 2020
Abstract
NB-IoT is the first 3GPP technology that has been specifically developed for IoT. In this paper, we will introduce the most important NB-IoT features included in Release 14, Release 15, and Release 16 and the need for testing of NB-IoT solutions. This paper [...] Read more.
NB-IoT is the first 3GPP technology that has been specifically developed for IoT. In this paper, we will introduce the most important NB-IoT features included in Release 14, Release 15, and Release 16 and the need for testing of NB-IoT solutions. This paper is focused on demonstrating the potential of the new experimentation features included into the TRIANGLE testbed to support testing and benchmarking of Narrowband Internet of Thing (NB-IoT) solutions. TRIANGLE provides an experimentation framework that offers a high level of abstraction using a framework that allows for defining and executing experiments in a very straightforward way. The experimentation framework developed as part of the TRIANGLE project optionally keeps experimenters far from the low level configuration of the infrastructure and provides scenarios which reproduce realistic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things (IoT) 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of a Sensor Big Data Processing System for Autonomous Vehicles in the C-ITS Environment
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7858; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217858 - 05 Nov 2020
Abstract
To provide a service that guarantees driver comfort and safety, a platform utilizing connected car big data is required. This study first aims to design and develop such a platform to improve the function of providing vehicle and road condition information of the [...] Read more.
To provide a service that guarantees driver comfort and safety, a platform utilizing connected car big data is required. This study first aims to design and develop such a platform to improve the function of providing vehicle and road condition information of the previously defined central Local Dynamic Map (LDM). Our platform extends the range of connected car big data collection from OBU (On Board Unit) and CAN to camera, LiDAR, and GPS sensors. By using data of vehicles being driven, the range of roads available for analysis can be expanded, and the road condition determination method can be diversified. Herein, the system was designed and implemented based on the Hadoop ecosystem, i.e., Hadoop, Spark, and Kafka, to collect and store connected car big data. We propose a direction of the cooperative intelligent transport system (C-ITS) development by showing a plan to utilize the platform in the C-ITS environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things (IoT) 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
QoSComm: A Data Flow Allocation Strategy among SDN-Based Data Centers for IoT Big Data Analytics
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7586; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217586 - 28 Oct 2020
Abstract
When Internet of Things (IoT) big data analytics (BDA) require to transfer data streams among software defined network (SDN)-based distributed data centers, the data flow forwarding in the communication network is typically done by an SDN controller using a traditional shortest path algorithm [...] Read more.
When Internet of Things (IoT) big data analytics (BDA) require to transfer data streams among software defined network (SDN)-based distributed data centers, the data flow forwarding in the communication network is typically done by an SDN controller using a traditional shortest path algorithm or just considering bandwidth requirements by the applications. In BDA, this scheme could affect their performance resulting in a longer job completion time because additional metrics were not considered, such as end-to-end delay, jitter, and packet loss rate in the data transfer path. These metrics are quality of service (QoS) parameters in the communication network. This research proposes a solution called QoSComm, an SDN strategy to allocate QoS-based data flows for BDA running across distributed data centers to minimize their job completion time. QoSComm operates in two phases: (i) based on the current communication network conditions, it calculates the feasible paths for each data center using a multi-objective optimization method; (ii) it distributes the resultant paths among data centers configuring their openflow Switches (OFS) dynamically. Simulation results show that QoSComm can improve BDA job completion time by an average of 18%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things (IoT) 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
A Blockchain-Based OCF Firmware Update for IoT Devices
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6744; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196744 - 26 Sep 2020
Abstract
As the usage growth rate of Internet of Things (IoT) devices is increasing, various issues related to these devices need attention. One of them is the distribution of the IoT firmware update. The IoT devices’ software development does not end when the manufacturer [...] Read more.
As the usage growth rate of Internet of Things (IoT) devices is increasing, various issues related to these devices need attention. One of them is the distribution of the IoT firmware update. The IoT devices’ software development does not end when the manufacturer sells the devices to the market. It still needs to be kept updated to prevent cyber-attacks. The commonly used firmware update process, over-the-air (OTA), mostly happens in a centralized way, in which the IoT devices directly download the firmware update from the manufacturer’s server. This central architecture makes the manufacturer’s server vulnerable to single-point-of-failure and latency issues that can delay critical patches from being applied to vulnerable devices. The Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF) is one organization contributing to providing interoperability services for IoT devices. In one of their subject areas, they provide a firmware update protocol for IoT devices. However, their firmware update process does not ensure the integrity and security of the patches. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based OCF firmware update for IoT devices. Specifically, we introduce two types of firmware update protocol, direct and peer-to-peer updates, integrated into OCF firmware update specifications. In the direct scenario, the device, through the IoT gateway, can download the new firmware update from the manufacturer’s server. Meanwhile, in the peer-to-peer scheme, the device can query the update from the nearby gateways. We implemented our protocol using Raspberry Pi hardware and Ethereum-based blockchain with the smart contracts to record metadata of the manufacturer’s firmware updates. We evaluated the proposed system’s performance by measuring the average throughput, the latency, and the firmware update distribution’s duration. The analysis results indicate that our proposal can deliver firmware updates in a reasonable duration, with the peer-to-peer version having a faster completion time than the direct one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things (IoT) 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
A Smart Parking Solution Architecture Based on LoRaWAN and Kubernetes
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4674; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134674 - 07 Jul 2020
Abstract
Finding a parking space in a city is one of the most common activities of a driver. This becomes more difficult when the city is unknown or has huge vehicular congestion. A solution to address this issue is called smart parking. Smart parking [...] Read more.
Finding a parking space in a city is one of the most common activities of a driver. This becomes more difficult when the city is unknown or has huge vehicular congestion. A solution to address this issue is called smart parking. Smart parking solutions rely on Internet of Things (IoT) and several technologies to achieve their purpose. This paper proposes an architecture for deploying a smart parking solution based on Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) sensors, LoRaWAN and a cluster of Kubernetes. This approach provides an open architecture able to share information with other parties through a REST API interface. Likewise, it contains a mobile and a web application for user interaction. This solution provides an administration interface for managing parking lots. The user interface lets a user to find, view information, display available spaces and rate a parking lot in real time. This solution could be used as an application as service parking system. The proposed architecture is fully portable and scalable due to the use of Kubernetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things (IoT) 2020)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Security Architecture for Cloud-Based Command and Control System in IoT Environment
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10031035 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
With the development of the fourth industrial technology, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing, developed countries including the U.S. are investigating the efficiency of national defense, the public sector and national innovation, and constructing the infrastructure for cloud computing [...] Read more.
With the development of the fourth industrial technology, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing, developed countries including the U.S. are investigating the efficiency of national defense, the public sector and national innovation, and constructing the infrastructure for cloud computing environments through related policies. The Republic of Korea is enacting the related legislation and considering the fourth industrial technology in various fields. Particularly, it is considering the adaptation of the cloud to the command and control system in the national defense sector; hence, related research and pilot projects are being conducted. However, if the existing information system is converted to a cloud computing system by introducing IoT devices, existing security requirements cannot solve problems related to the security vulnerabilities of cloud computing. Therefore, to build a cloud-based secure command and control system, it is necessary to derive additional cloud computing-related security requirements that are lacking in the existing security requirements, and to build a secure national defense command and control system architecture based upon it. In this paper, we derive security requirements for a cloud-based command control system, propose a security architecture designed based thereupon, and implement a security architecture with an open-stack-based cloud platform, “OpenStack”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things (IoT) 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
An IoT-Based Glucose Monitoring Algorithm to Prevent Diabetes Complications
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030921 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by blood glucose levels above normal limits. The impact of this disease on the population has increased in recent years. It is already a public health problem worldwide and one of the leading causes of [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by blood glucose levels above normal limits. The impact of this disease on the population has increased in recent years. It is already a public health problem worldwide and one of the leading causes of death. Recently, several proposals have been developed for better and regular monitoring of glucose. However, theses proposals do not discard erroneous readings and they are not able to anticipate a critical condition. In this work, we propose an algorithm based on the double moving average supported by an IoT architecture to prevent possible complications in elderly patients. The algorithm uses historical readings to construct a series. Given a number of periods, it is possible to calculate averages of different subsets and trends for the next periods and, in this way, the prognosis is obtained. With the prognosis, it is possible to notify the doctor and relatives in advance about a possible critical condition in the patient. The aim of our work is to validate the architecture and prognosis algorithm used for elderly persons. Tests of the algorithm and the architecture were performed with different readings and it was shown that the system generated corresponding notifications before the glucose values were higher than those defined by the WHO (World Health Organization), thus avoiding unnecessary alarms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things (IoT) 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Hierarchically Authorized Transactions for Massive Internet-of-Things Data Sharing Based on Multilayer Blockchain
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5159; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235159 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
With the arrival of the Internet of Things (IoT) era and the rise of Big Data, cloud computing, and similar technologies, data resources are becoming increasingly valuable. Organizations and users can perform all kinds of processing and analysis on the basis of massive [...] Read more.
With the arrival of the Internet of Things (IoT) era and the rise of Big Data, cloud computing, and similar technologies, data resources are becoming increasingly valuable. Organizations and users can perform all kinds of processing and analysis on the basis of massive IoT data, thus adding to their value. However, this is based on data-sharing transactions, and most existing work focuses on one aspect of data transactions, such as convenience, privacy protection, and auditing. In this paper, a data-sharing-transaction application based on blockchain technology is proposed, which comprehensively considers various types of performance, provides an efficient consistency mechanism, improves transaction verification, realizes high-performance concurrency, and has tamperproof functions. Experiments were designed to analyze the functions and storage of the proposed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things (IoT) 2020)
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