Topical Collection "Feeding Strategies to Improve Sustainability and Welfare in Animal Production"

A topical collection in Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This collection belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Editors

Prof. Fulvia Bovera
Website
Collection Editor
University of Napoli Federico II, Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, Napoli, Italy
Interests: animal nutrition; rabbit; poultry; fish; edible insect; feed evaluation; feed formulation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Giovanni Piccolo
Website
Collection Editor
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy
Interests: animal nutrition, aquaculture, edible insect, feed evaluation; feed formulation

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The most accredited FAO statistics predict that in thirty years the world's population will have reached 9 billion people. In order to satisfy the nutritional needs of humans, the demand for raw materials, especially protein sources will increase. It has been estimated that by 2050, the production of meat will increase by 50%, while the demand for fish, milk, and eggs will grow by 75%. An increase of animal products requires an increase of farmed animals and this will be accompanied by a significant intensification in livestock farming (higher animal densities and production units, more concentrated feed, pharmaceuticals, and vaccinations, etc.). A large number of animals, farmed in relatively small areas, results in the deposition of large amounts of excreta containing nitrogen, phosphorus, organic matter, and faecal microbes in the water, with a consequent contamination of water systems globally, such as surface water eutrophication and groundwater nitrate enrichment. Thus, the livestock sector is an important user of natural resources and has a great influence on the air, soil and water quality, global climate, and biodiversity maintenance. Our research can propose innovative ideas to control the environmental damage through the management of animal nutrition. At the same time, the perception of animals as sentient beings capable of feeling emotions, like joy and pain, will increase more and more in the future. Thus, it will be increasingly important to adopt nutritional strategies and breeding techniques capable of increasing animal welfare and at the same time reducing the use of pharmacological treatments in full respect of the environment, animal health and food safety.

We invite researchers to send original papers addressed to methods for improving the sustainability of animal production (i.e. ruminant, pig, poultry, fish, rabbit, etc.), taking into account animal welfare. We will appreciate it if appropriate nutritional strategies including sustainable ingredients, natural molecules and specific feeding techniques are proposed.

An additional topic includes testing the efficacy of nutritional strategies using innovative laboratory analysis and the effects of these strategies on the quality of animal products.

Prof. Fulvia Bovera
Prof. Giovanni Piccolo
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Farmed animals
  • Nutritional strategies
  • Environmental sustainability
  • Animal performance
  • Animal products

Published Papers (40 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020, 2019

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) Seed Cakes on Biochemical Values of Equine Plasma Subjected to Physical Exertion
Animals 2021, 11(1), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010210 (registering DOI) - 16 Jan 2021
Abstract
Veterinarians can recommend milk thistle for the treatment of equine liver disease and laminitis. Milk thistle seed cakes were fed in the range of normal feed doses in this study. The milk thistle seed cakes were fed (twice a day) to the experimental [...] Read more.
Veterinarians can recommend milk thistle for the treatment of equine liver disease and laminitis. Milk thistle seed cakes were fed in the range of normal feed doses in this study. The milk thistle seed cakes were fed (twice a day) to the experimental group of the horses (n = 5) and biochemical blood markers (TP, Albumin, ALT (alanine transaminase), AST (aspartate transaminase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), GGT (gamma-glutamyltransferase), Bilirubin, Cholesterol, HDL (high-density lipoprotein), LDL (low-density lipoprotein), TAG (triacylglycerol), BHB (beta-hydroxybutyric acid), NEFA (non-esterified fatty acids), creatine kinase, creatinine, Urea, GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), TAS (total antioxidant status), lactate, glucose, cortisol, Ca, Pi) were monitored. The control group of horses (n = 5), bred and trained in the same conditions, was used for comparison. The control group received the entire feed dose as accepted by the horses in the experimental group before the beginning of the experiment. The aim was to find out whether the preparation of milk thistle seed cakes could have positive effects on the health of the horses. All ten horses received one feeding form before the beginning of the experimental monitoring. All horses were exposed to heavy physical exercise (regular combined driving training) after 56 days of milk thistle seed cakes feeding (up to 400 g/day). Three blood samples were taken (before physical exercise; about 15 min and 60 min after physical exercise). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were detected in the values of AST, NEFA, cortisol and Pi in the experimental group. The exercise effect was detected in the values of albumin, lactate, cortisol, NEFA, and calcium. Our results suggest that the feeding of milk thistle seed cakes could have a positive effect on the health of the horses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Does the Effect of Replacing Cottonseed Meal with Dried Distiller’s Grains on Nellore Bulls Finishing Phase Vary between Pasture and Feedlot?
Animals 2021, 11(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010085 - 05 Jan 2021
Abstract
The study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing cottonseed meal by dried distiller’s grains (DDG) in terms of efficiency in the productive aspects of beef cattle finishing in pasture versus feedlot. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in a [...] Read more.
The study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing cottonseed meal by dried distiller’s grains (DDG) in terms of efficiency in the productive aspects of beef cattle finishing in pasture versus feedlot. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with two production systems (pasture versus feedlot) and three supplements: CM, conventional supplement with cottonseed meal (CM) as a protein source; 50DDG: supplement with 50% replacement of CM by DDG; and 100DDG: 100% replacement. The effect of replacing CM by DDG on dry matter and nutrients intake and nutrients digestibility depends on the finishing system (p < 0.05). While in the pasture system animal consumed more nutrients in the CM, a greater intake was observed in the 100DDG in feedlot. The nutrients digestibility was lower in the pasture (p < 0.05). Animal performance and final body weight were higher in the feedlot (p < 0.0001), with averages of 1.57 kg/d and 566 kg of final body weight (FBW) for feedlot, and 0.99 kg/d and 504 kg FBW for pasture. The use of DDG does not change the animal performance finished in pasture or feedlot, and it is a viable alternative to replace conventional supplements in finishing phase in both systems in tropical environment. Full article

2020

Jump to: 2021, 2019

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Varying Dietary Crude Protein Level on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Milk Production, and Nitrogen Use Efficiency by Lactating Holstein-Friesian Cows
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2439; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122439 - 19 Dec 2020
Abstract
The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) level on intake, digestibility, milk production, and nitrogen (N) use efficiency was studied. Twenty-four Holstein-Friesian cows (17 multiparous and seven primiparous) were grouped by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and live weight into six blocks [...] Read more.
The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) level on intake, digestibility, milk production, and nitrogen (N) use efficiency was studied. Twenty-four Holstein-Friesian cows (17 multiparous and seven primiparous) were grouped by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and live weight into six blocks of four, and randomly assigned to four total mixed ration (TMR) treatments, containing 141, 151, 177, or 210 g CP/kg dry matter (DM), over 28 day experimental periods. Apparent total-tract DM and fiber digestibilities and milk fat composition were similar across treatments. Milk protein and urea-N compositions, and urinary and manure N excretion increased linearly, while milk N efficiency (MNE) decreased linearly with increasing CP. DM intake was highest with the 177 diet, while CP intake increased linearly with increasing CP, peaking at 200 g/kg DM. Milk yield increased with CP intake for the three lower CP levels, peaking at 176 g CP/kg DM. The further increase in CP level from 177 to 210 g/kg DM did not result in improved milk yield, but resulted in decreased milk N secretion and increased urinary N excretion. In summary, milk protein composition increased linearly with increasing CP, accompanied by a linear decrease in MNE, resulting in a bell-shaped relationship between milk yield and dietary CP level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Roughage Quality and Particle Size on Rumen Parameters and Fatty Acid Profiles of Longissimus Dorsi Fat of Lambs Fed Complete Feed
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112182 - 22 Nov 2020
Abstract
The fatty acid composition for the longissimus dorsi (LD) fat of carcass sheep is a crucial factor impacting meat quality. We performed a 90-day feeding trial of 25 Naemi lambs to investigate the effects of roughage sources (alfalfa or wheat straw) of two [...] Read more.
The fatty acid composition for the longissimus dorsi (LD) fat of carcass sheep is a crucial factor impacting meat quality. We performed a 90-day feeding trial of 25 Naemi lambs to investigate the effects of roughage sources (alfalfa or wheat straw) of two sizes (regular and 1 cm chopped) when fed with pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) on the growth performance, fermentation patterns, and fatty acid (FA) composition of longissimus dorsi (LD) fat. Lambs were randomly assigned to individual pens with five treatment diets, as follows: C, control group with TMR; T1, TMR and regular alfalfa hay; T2, TMR and alfalfa hay chopped to 1 cm; T3, TMR and regular wheat straw; and T4, TMR and wheat straw chopped to 1 cm. Four lambs were randomly selected from each treatment (20 total) and sacrificed. LD fat of the carcass was extracted and analyzed for FA using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Significantly increased feed intake was found in T1 and T2. The FA composition of LD fat in T2 had higher unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), omega-6 (n6), and omega-3 (n3) FA content. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and α-linoleic acid were highest in lambs fed T1 and T2. Feeding different types of roughage, especially alfalfa hay, either regular or chopped, with total pelleted mixed ration is crucial to improving feed intake and body weight gain, as it positively enhances the rumen microbial fermentation process by controlling rumen pH. The FA profiles of meat from lambs fed TMR with regular or 1 cm particle size alfalfa hay (T1 and T2) are recommended for human consumption as a source of healthy FAs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dihydropyridine Enhances the Antioxidant Capacities of Lactating Dairy Cows under Heat Stress Condition
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1812; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101812 - 05 Oct 2020
Abstract
Heat stress (HS), a nonspecific response to environmental heat, can seriously affect dairy cow health. Feed additives may alleviate HS in dairy cows by improving rumen fermentation efficacy, stimulating feed consumption, enhancing vasodilation, and/or improving antioxidant capacity. The temperature–humidity index (THI) indicates that [...] Read more.
Heat stress (HS), a nonspecific response to environmental heat, can seriously affect dairy cow health. Feed additives may alleviate HS in dairy cows by improving rumen fermentation efficacy, stimulating feed consumption, enhancing vasodilation, and/or improving antioxidant capacity. The temperature–humidity index (THI) indicates that spring is a non-HS season, and summer is an HS season. HS results in the decrease in dairy cow antioxidant capacities. Our results indicated the decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and total antioxidation (T-AOC) levels and the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level during HS season. Meanwhile, antioxidant indexes (SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC) were positively correlated with milk yield (p < 0.01), whereas MDA exhibited a significant negative correlation with milk yield (p < 0.05). In addition, the effects of dihydropyridine (DHP) on antioxidant capacity and ruminal microbial communities in dairy cows under HS were investigated. During summer, dairy cows were randomly assigned into two groups under HS, including a standard diet (S-ND) group and standard diet with 3 g/day/cow DHP (S-D) group. DHP treatment significantly restored SOD and GSH-Px levels under HS. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results indicated that the DHP altered ruminal bacterial community mainly composed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes in dairy cows under HS. Our results suggest that DHP can enhance the antioxidant abilities of dairy cows with favorable effects on ruminal microbial communities under HS, further alleviating HS on dairy cows. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of the Water Quality in Rainbow Trout Farming by Means of the Feeding Type and Management over 10 Years (2009–2019)
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091541 - 01 Sep 2020
Abstract
Background: In Europe, rainbow trout is one of the main fresh water fish farmed in a constantly developing environment that requires innovative studies to improve farm management, fish welfare and environmental sustainability. The aim of this paper is to investigate the trend of [...] Read more.
Background: In Europe, rainbow trout is one of the main fresh water fish farmed in a constantly developing environment that requires innovative studies to improve farm management, fish welfare and environmental sustainability. The aim of this paper is to investigate the trend of water quality parameters over 10 years, after a feeding strategy change from pellet to extruded feed. Methods: The study was conducted on a farm in central Italy, based on parallel raceways. The cycle started from young rainbow trout (90 ± 2 g) that were grown until they reached market size. A water sample of 500 cm3 was collected monthly from 2009 to 2019 from the lagoon basin in order to investigate the trends of the total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrites (NO2-N), nitrates (NO3-N), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total phosphorus (TP) and pH. Results: All of the studied parameters (TSS, BOD5, COD, NO2-N, NO3-N, TAN and TP) showed a significant improvement from 2009 to 2019. The pH parameter did not display notable variation during the studied period. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was also investigated and exhibited a significant improvement from 1.4 to 1.1. Conclusion: Based on the decrease of all the investigated parameters, it is possible to say that extrusion is currently an excellent processing feed technique in aquaculture with a good level of respect for the environment. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Propylene Glycol on Negative Energy Balance of Postpartum Dairy Cows
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091526 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
With the improvement in the intense genetic selection of dairy cows, advanced management strategies, and improved feed quality and disease control, milk production level has been greatly improved. However, the negative energy balance (NEB) is increasingly serious at the postpartum stage because the [...] Read more.
With the improvement in the intense genetic selection of dairy cows, advanced management strategies, and improved feed quality and disease control, milk production level has been greatly improved. However, the negative energy balance (NEB) is increasingly serious at the postpartum stage because the intake of nutrients cannot meet the demand of quickly improved milk production. The NEB leads to a large amount of body fat mobilization and consequently the elevated production of ketones, which causes metabolic diseases such as ketosis and fatty liver. The high milk production of dairy cows in early lactation aggravates NEB. The metabolic diseases lead to metabolic disorders, a decrease in reproductive performance, and lactation performance decline, seriously affecting the health and production of cows. Propylene glycol (PG) can alleviate NEB through gluconeogenesis and inhibit the synthesis of ketone bodies. In addition, PG improves milk yield, reproduction, and immune performance by improving plasma glucose and liver function in ketosis cows, and reduces milk fat percentage. However, a large dose of PG (above 500 g/d) has toxic and side effects in cows. The feeding method used was an oral drench. The combination of PG with some other additives can improve the effects in preventing ketosis. Overall, the present review summarizes the recent research progress in the impacts of NEB in dairy cows and the properties of PG in alleviating NEB and reducing the risk of ketosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pre-Exposure of Early-Weaned Lambs to a Herb-Clover Mix Does Not Improve Their Subsequent Growth
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081354 - 05 Aug 2020
Abstract
Twin sets of lambs were randomly allocated to one of six treatments: (1) lambs born and managed on ryegrass–clover-based pasture until conventional weaning approximately at 99 days of age (Grass–GrassCW); (2) lambs born on ryegrass–clover-based pasture and early weaned onto a [...] Read more.
Twin sets of lambs were randomly allocated to one of six treatments: (1) lambs born and managed on ryegrass–clover-based pasture until conventional weaning approximately at 99 days of age (Grass–GrassCW); (2) lambs born on ryegrass–clover-based pasture and early weaned onto a herb–clover mix at ~45 days of age (Grass–HerbEW); (3) lambs born on ryegrass–clover-based pasture, transferred with their dam onto a herb–clover mix at ~45 days of age until conventional weaning (Grass–HerbCW); (4) lambs born on ryegrass–clover-based pasture, transferred with their dam onto a herb–clover mix at ~15 days of age and early weaned onto a herb–clover mix at ~45 days of age (Grass–HerbD15EW); (5) lambs born and managed on herb–clover mix until conventional weaning (Herb–HerbCW); (6) lambs born on herb–clover mix and weaned early onto a herb–clover mix at ~45 days of age (Herb–HerbEW). In both years, Herb–HerbCW lambs had greater (p < 0.05) growth rates than lambs in other treatments. The liveweight gains and rumen papillae development of Herb–HerbEW, Grass–HerbD15EW and Grass–HerbEW lambs did not differ (p > 0.05). The weight of the empty digestive tract components at either early weaning or conventional weaning did not differ (p > 0.05) between treatments. Exposing early-weaned lambs to the herb mix for a prolonged period, prior to early weaning, does not improve their subsequent growth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Mineral Supplementation on the Macromineral Concentration in Blood in Pre- and Postpartum Blackbelly Sheep
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071206 - 16 Jul 2020
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mineral supplementation on the serum concentration of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium in pre- and postpartum Blackbelly sheep throughout three successive lambing periods under free grazing conditions in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region. The [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mineral supplementation on the serum concentration of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium in pre- and postpartum Blackbelly sheep throughout three successive lambing periods under free grazing conditions in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region. The field work was carried out between January 2015 and February 2018 using 20 Blackbelly sheep belonging to the Centre for Research, Postgraduate Studies and Conservation of Amazon Biodiversity, Ecuador. The flock was randomly divided into two groups: Group 1 (G1) was fed with forage plus a supplementation (Pecutrin® Mineral supplement plus vitamins A, D3, and E. Bayer HealthCare) and Group 2 (G2) was fed only with forage without mineral supplementation. Three blood samples from the coccygeal vein were taken from each sheep 30 days before lambing, 30 days after, and 60 days after lambing. Concerning the average of calcium, significant differences were found at different times inside each group and also between them (p < 0.0001 in both cases). As for the phosphorus, significant differences were found between the means of the groups for all times from 30 days after the second lambing season (p < 0.05). It was observed that the groups differed significantly in terms on the average of magnesium (considering a significance level of 0.05) 30 days before the first lambing and at all times measured from the 30 days after the second lambing (p < 0.005). In this study, we showed that Blackbelly sheep raised under free grazing conditions in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region had very low serum calcium values, and supplementation was unable to improve them. Meanwhile, phosphorus and magnesium levels were below the required values, but after supplementation, they exceeded the minimum threshold. Mineral supplementation in the rearing of sheep in grazing systems is necessary during the entire production cycle, but it must be done taking into account the soil–plant–animal relationship specifically for the Amazonian Region systems. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Fermented Feed and Vaccination and Their Interaction on Parameters of Large White/Norwegian Landrace Piglets
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071201 - 15 Jul 2020
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fermented with a newly isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains combination (Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS122, Lactobacillus casei LUHS210, Lactobacillus farraginis LUHS206, Pediococcus acidilactici LUHS29, Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 and Lactobacillus uvarum LUHS245) feed [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fermented with a newly isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains combination (Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS122, Lactobacillus casei LUHS210, Lactobacillus farraginis LUHS206, Pediococcus acidilactici LUHS29, Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 and Lactobacillus uvarum LUHS245) feed on non-vaccinated (NV) and vaccinated with Circovac porcine circovirus type 2 vaccine (QI09AA07, CEVA-PHYLAXIA Co. Ltd. Szállás u. 5. 1107 Budapest, Hungary) piglets’ blood parameters, gut microbial composition, growth performance and ammonia emission. The 36-day experiment was conducted using 25-day-old Large White/Norwegian Landrace (LW/NL) piglets, which were randomly divided into four groups with 100 piglets each: SnonV—non-vaccinated piglets fed with control group compound feed; SV—vaccinated piglets fed with control group compound feed; RFnonV—non-vaccinated piglets fed with fermented compound feed; RFV—vaccinated piglets fed with fermented compound feed. Samples from 10 animals per group were collected at the beginning and end of the experiment. Metagenomic analysis showed that fermentation had a positive impact on the Lactobacillus prevalence during the post-weaning period of pigs, and vaccination had no negative impact on microbial communities. Although a higher amount of Lactobacillus was detected in vaccinated, compared with non-vaccinated groups. At the end of experiment, there was a significantly higher LAB count in the faeces of both vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated groups (26.6% for SV and 17.2% for RFV), with the highest LAB count in the SV group. At the end of experiment, the SV faeces also had the highest total bacteria count (TBC). The RFV group had a 13.2% increase in total enterobacteria count (TEC) at the end of experiment, and the SV group showed a 31.2% higher yeast/mould (Y/M) count. There were no significant differences in the average daily gain (ADG) among the groups; however, there were significant differences in the feed conversion ratios (FCR) between several groups: SV vs. SnonV (11.5% lower in the SV group), RFV vs. RFnonV (10.2% lower in the RFnonV group) and SV vs. RFV (21.6% lower in the SV group). Furthermore, there was a significant, very strong positive correlation between FCR and TEC in piglets’ faeces (R = 0.919, p = 0.041). The lowest ammonia emission was in RFV group section (58.2, 23.8, and 47.33% lower compared with the SnonV, SV and RFnonV groups, respectively). Notably, there was lower ammonia emission in vaccinated groups (45.2% lower in SV vs. SnonV and 47.33% lower in RFV vs. RFnonV). There was also a significant, very strong positive correlation between ammonia emission and Y/M count in piglets’ faeces at the end of the experiment (R = 0.974; p = 0.013). Vaccination as a separate factor did not significantly influence piglets’ blood parameters. Overall, by changing from an extruded soya to cheaper rapeseed meal and applying the fermentation model with the selected LAB combination, it is possible to feed piglets without any undesirable changes in health and growth performance in a more sustainable manner. However, to evaluate the influence of vaccination and its interaction with other parameters (feed, piglets’ age, breed, etc.) on piglets’ parameters, additional studies should be performed and methods should be standardised to ensure the results may be compared. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Methane Emissions and Milk Fatty Acid Profiles in Dairy Cows Fed Linseed, Measured at the Group Level in a Naturally Ventilated Housing and Individually in Respiration Chambers
Animals 2020, 10(6), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10061091 - 24 Jun 2020
Abstract
The present study evaluated the effects of linseed supplementation on CH4 emission and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows measured at the group level in an experimental dairy loose housing using a tracer gas technique and individually in tied stalls and [...] Read more.
The present study evaluated the effects of linseed supplementation on CH4 emission and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows measured at the group level in an experimental dairy loose housing using a tracer gas technique and individually in tied stalls and respiration chambers. Cows (2 × 20) were maintained in two separate sections under loose-housing conditions and received a diet supplemented with extruded linseed (L) lipids (29 g·kg−1 dry matter) or a control (C) diet containing corn flour. Subsequently, 2 × 6 cows per dietary group were investigated in a tied-housing system and respiration chambers. Substantially higher proportions of favorable milk fatty acids were recovered in L cows when compared with C cows at the group level, making the analysis of bulk milk a suitable control instrument for retailers. Linseed supplementation resulted in a slightly lower diurnal course of CH4 emission intensity than the control at the group and individual levels. However, we found no more than a trend for a CH4 mitigating effect, unlike in other studies supplementing similar linseed lipid levels. Feed supplements in concentrations that lead to a significant reduction in CH4 emissions must show whether the reduction potential determined at the group and individual levels is comparable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Amino Acid Supplementations to Low-Protein Diets: Effect on Performance, Carcass Yield, Meat Quality and Nitrogen Excretion of Finishing Broilers under Hot Climate Conditions
Animals 2020, 10(6), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10060973 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-protein diets with amino acid supplementation on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality and nitrogen excretion of broilers raised under hot climate conditions during the finisher period. In trial 1, broilers from [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-protein diets with amino acid supplementation on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality and nitrogen excretion of broilers raised under hot climate conditions during the finisher period. In trial 1, broilers from 28 to 49 days of age were fed 18% crude protein (CP) as a positive control or 15% CP supplemented with (1) DL-methionine (Met) + L-lysine (Lys), (2) Met + Lys + L-Arginine (Arg), or (3) Met + Lys + L-Valine (Val). In trial 2, broilers from 30 to 45 days of age, were fed an 18% CP diet as a positive control or 15% CP supplemented with Met, Lys, Arg, Val, L-Isoleucine (Ile) or combination with glycine (Gly) and/or urea as nitrogen sources: (1) Met + Lys, (2) Met + Lys + Arg, (3) Met + Lys + Val, (4) Met + Lys + Ile, (5) Met + Lys + Arg +Val + Ile + Gly, and (6) Met+ Lys + Arg + Val + Ile + Gly + urea. Protein use was improved by feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets as compared to the high-protein diet. Feeding 15% crude protein diet supplemented with only methionine and lysine had no negative effects on carcass yield, CP, total lipids and moisture% of breast meat while decreasing nitrogen excretion by 21%. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Extrusion Temperatures, Pelleting Parameters, and Vitamin Forms on Vitamin Stability in Feed
Animals 2020, 10(5), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050894 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Two experiments were conducted to determine the stability of microencapsulated and non-microencapsulated forms of vitamins in diets during extrusion and pelleting. We investigated the recovery of vitamins in swine diets after extrusion at 100 °C, 140 °C, or 180 °C. Next, two diets [...] Read more.
Two experiments were conducted to determine the stability of microencapsulated and non-microencapsulated forms of vitamins in diets during extrusion and pelleting. We investigated the recovery of vitamins in swine diets after extrusion at 100 °C, 140 °C, or 180 °C. Next, two diets were conditioned at 65 °C (low temperature; LT) or 85 °C (high temperature; HT), and pellets were formed using a 2.5 × 15.0 mm (low length-to-diameter ratio; LR) or 2.5 × 20.0 mm (high length-to-diameter ratio; HR) die. The extrusion temperature had a significant effect on the recovery of vitamins E, B1, B2, B3, and B5 in the diets. The diet extruded at 100 °C had higher B1, B2, B3, and B5 vitamin recoveries than diets extruded at 140 °C and 180 °C. Microencapsulated vitamins A and K3 had greater stability than non-microencapsulated vitamins A and K3 at 100 °C and 140 °C extrusion. In the diet extruded at 180 °C, microencapsulated vitamins A, D3, and K3 had higher recoveries than non-microencapsulated vitamins A, D3, and K3. The recovery of vitamin K3 in diets after LTLR (low temperature + low length-to-diameter ratio) or HTLR (high temperature + low length-to-diameter ratio) pelleting was greater (p < 0.05) than after LTHR (low temperature + high length-to-diameter ratio) and HTHR (high temperature + high length-to-diameter ratio) pelleting. Our results clearly show that low extrusion temperature and low pellet temperature, and a low length-to-diameter ratio (L:D ratio) for pellet mill die are recommended for pig feed. Moreover, microencapsulated vitamins had greater stability compared to non-microencapsulated vitamins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Two Nutritional Strategies to Balance Energy and Protein Supply in Fattening Heifers on Performance, Ruminal Metabolism, and Carcass Characteristics
Animals 2020, 10(5), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050852 - 14 May 2020
Abstract
Latin America is an important contributor to the worldwide beef business, but in general, there are limited studies considering strategies to reduce nitrogen contamination in their production systems. The study’s goal was to assess the effect of two nutritional strategies to balance energy [...] Read more.
Latin America is an important contributor to the worldwide beef business, but in general, there are limited studies considering strategies to reduce nitrogen contamination in their production systems. The study’s goal was to assess the effect of two nutritional strategies to balance energy and protein supply in fattening heifers on performance, ruminal metabolism, and carcass characteristics. A total of 24 crossbred heifers (initial body weight ’BW ’of 372 ± 36 kg) were used to create two blocks (based on live weight) of two pens each, that were equipped with individual feeders. Within each block, half of the animals were assigned to a diet based on tabular Crude Protein (CP) requirements denominated Crude Protein Diet ‘CPD’ but without a ruminal degradable protein balance. The other half received a diet denominated Metabolizable Protein Diet ‘MPD’, formulated with the metabolizable protein system, balanced for the ruminal degradable protein. Both diets had the same ingredients and as well as similar synchrony indexes (0.80 and 0.83, respectively). For nitrogen concentration in feces and urine as well as microbial crude protein synthesis, a total of 12 heifers (three per pen) were randomly selected to collect samples. The dataset was analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 5% significance. No diet × time interaction was observed for Average Daily Gain ’ADG’ (p = 0.89), but there was an effect of the time on ADG (p ≤ 0.001). No differences were observed neither for final weight, dry matter intake ’DMI’, and feed conversion rate (p > 0.05). Heifers fed with CPD showed greater cold carcass weight (p = 0.041), but without differences in ribeye area, backfat thickness, pH, dressing %, and marbling (p > 0.05). Differences between diets were observed for the in vitro parameters as well as for the Total Volatile Fatty Acids ’VFA’ and NH3 (p < 0.05). Total N concentrations (urine + feces) of heifers fed with MDP was lower than in those fed with the CPD (p < 0.01), but no differences were observed in microbial protein, purine derivatives, and creatinine (p > 0.05). We conclude that the combination of synchrony and the metabolizable protein system achieve greater efficiency in the use of nitrogen, without negatively affecting animals’ performance or the quality of the carcass. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Effects of Fungal Feed Additives in Animals: A Review
Animals 2020, 10(5), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050805 - 06 May 2020
Abstract
As probiotics, fungi enhance animal health and are suitable animal feed additives. In addition to brewing fungi, there are also edible and medicinal fungi. Common fungi utilized in feeding programs include Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus oryzae, Pleurotus spp., Antrodia cinnamomea, and Cordyceps [...] Read more.
As probiotics, fungi enhance animal health and are suitable animal feed additives. In addition to brewing fungi, there are also edible and medicinal fungi. Common fungi utilized in feeding programs include Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus oryzae, Pleurotus spp., Antrodia cinnamomea, and Cordyceps militaris. These fungi are rich in glucans, polysaccharides, polyphenols, triterpenes, ergosterol, adenosine, and laccases. These functional components play important roles in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and immune system regulation. As such, fungal feed additives could be of potential use when breeding livestock. In previous studies, fungal feed additives enhanced body weight and egg production in poultry and improved the feed conversion rate. Several mycotoxins can be produced by hazardous fungi but fortunately, the cell walls constituents and enzymes of fungal probiotics can also act to decrease the toxicity of mycotoxins. Overall, fungal feed additives are of value, but their safety and usage must be studied further, including cost-benefit economic analyses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Heavy Metal Content in Feed, Litter, Meat, Meat Products, Liver, and Table Eggs of Chickens
Animals 2020, 10(4), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040727 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
We assessed the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ni in chicken meat and meat products, feed, and litter, as well as laying hens’ eggs, feed and litter to monitor the quality of products on the market [...] Read more.
We assessed the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ni in chicken meat and meat products, feed, and litter, as well as laying hens’ eggs, feed and litter to monitor the quality of products on the market and their safety for human consumption as judged by recommended daily allowance (RDA) and tolerable upper levels. Samples were chosen as the most popular poultry products in Saudi Arabia. A total of 45 broiler samples of frozen or fresh meat, liver, burger, or frankfurter were chosen from the same brand. Additionally, 60 table eggs from four commercial brands were collected, and the edible parts of these were used to determine levels of minerals and toxic elements. Furthermore, 30 feed and litter samples were collected from the starter, grower, and layer diets of broilers and laying hens. The results indicated that there were significant levels of most of the trace elements and heavy metals in the different meat sources. Furthermore, the liver contained the highest levels of elements, except for Cr, Co, and Ni. The highest Cr level was detected in the fresh meat, followed by frozen meat. Trace elements (Mn and Co) and heavy metals (Ni and Pb) were not detected in either the frozen or the fresh meat. The chicken burger and the frankfurter exhibited similar trace-element and heavy-metal contents, except for Zn and Mn, as the frankfurter showed higher concentrations than the burger. Differences in most of the trace and toxic elements among the different sources of eggs were not found to be significant, except for Zn. Differences between the broiler meat and table eggs were only substantial for Fe and Zn. Fe was significantly higher in meat than in eggs, and the opposite trend was found for Zn. The liver contained higher heavy metals than the eggs, except for Cr. In addition, the burger had higher concentrations of essential (Cu and Co) and heavy metals (Pb and Ni) than the eggs but had lower levels of Zn and Cr. The frankfurter exhibited significantly higher levels of Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Pb, and Ni than the eggs but lower levels of Zn and Cr. To summarize, Cd, Pb, As, and Se were not detected in the broiler meat or eggs, indicating no risks from these toxic elements. Conversely, the liver exhibited the highest content of heavy metals, except for Cr, indicating that the intake of Pb and Cd was above the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for adults. The meat products exhibited higher Pb, Cd, and Ni levels than the broiler meat and the table eggs, suggesting that they posed a health threat to humans, and the intake of Pb in the meat products was higher than the RDA. Thus, chicken meat and table eggs, which are primary protein sources, are safe sources of human nutrition, while liver and meat products may present potential health hazards through the food chain. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Nutrigenomic Effects of Long-Term Grape Pomace Supplementation in Dairy Cows
Animals 2020, 10(4), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040714 - 19 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The increasing demand for more animal products put pressure on improving livestock production efficiency and sustainability. In this context, advanced animal nutrition studies appear indispensable. Here, the effect of grape pomace (GP), the polyphenol-rich agricultural by-product, was evaluated on Holstein-Friesian cows’ whole-blood transcriptome, [...] Read more.
The increasing demand for more animal products put pressure on improving livestock production efficiency and sustainability. In this context, advanced animal nutrition studies appear indispensable. Here, the effect of grape pomace (GP), the polyphenol-rich agricultural by-product, was evaluated on Holstein-Friesian cows’ whole-blood transcriptome, milk production and composition. Two experimental groups were set up. The first one received a basal diet and served as a control, while the second one received a 7.5% GP-supplemented diet for a total of 60 days. Milk production and composition were not different between the group; however, the transcriptome analysis revealed a total of 40 genes significantly affected by GP supplementation. Among the most interesting down-regulated genes, we found the DnaJ heat-shock protein family member A1 (DNAJA1), the mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), and the impact RWD domain protein (IMPACT) genes. The gene set enrichment analysis evidenced the positive enrichment of ‘interferon alpha (IFN-α) and IFN-γ response’, ‘IL6-JAK-STAT3 signaling’ and ‘complement’ genes. Moreover, the functional analysis denoted positive enrichment of the ‘response to protozoan’ and ‘negative regulation of viral genome replication’ biological processes. Our data provide an overall view of the blood transcriptomic signature after a 60-day GP supplementation in dairy cows which mainly reflects a GP-induced immunomodulatory effect. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Microbial and Fungal Phytases Can Affect Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profile of Broilers Fed Different Levels of Non-Phytic Phosphorous
Animals 2020, 10(4), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040580 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A total of 420 day old chicks were divided into seven groups (5 replicates of 12 chicks/group) fed isoproteic and isoenergetic diets. The control group was fed diets containing 0.50%, 0.45% and 0.40% of non-phytic phosphorous (nPP) in starter (1–35), grower (37–56) and [...] Read more.
A total of 420 day old chicks were divided into seven groups (5 replicates of 12 chicks/group) fed isoproteic and isoenergetic diets. The control group was fed diets containing 0.50%, 0.45% and 0.40% of non-phytic phosphorous (nPP) in starter (1–35), grower (37–56) and finisher (57–64 d) periods, respectively. The three intermediate nPP (IntnPP) groups were fed diets with 0.40%, 0.35% and 0.30% nPP according to the growth period and were submitted to three dietary treatments: unsupplemented; supplemented with 500 FTU/kg diet of an Aspergillus niger phytase (IntnPP_fp) and supplemented with 500 FTU/kg diet of an Escherichia coli phytase (IntnPP_bp). The three low nPP groups fed diets contained 0.30%, 0.25% and 0.20% nPP and were submitted to the same dietary treatments than IntnPP to obtain LnPP, LnPP_fp and LnPP_bp groups. IntnPP and LnPP groups had lower body weight gain and feed, crude protein (CP) and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (p < 0.05) than the control. Feed conversion ratio of IntnPP was more favorable (p < 0.01) than the LnPP group. CP and ME conversion ratios worsened (p < 0.01) in IntnPP and LnPP groups in comparison to the control. The nPP conversion ratio improved (p < 0.01) from the control to the LnPP group. Fungal phytase reduced (p < 0.05) feed, CP, ME and nPP intake than the bacterial one. IntnPP and LnPP diets had a lower digestibility of CP (p < 0.01) and CF (p = 0.01) than the control. IntnPP and LnPP groups showed a higher (p < 0.05) economic efficiency than the control. Blood total protein was the lowest (p < 0.05) in the LnPP group, the control group showed the lowest (p < 0.05) level of albumin and IntnPP group had the lowest (p < 0.01) globulin level. The use of bacterial phytase increased (p < 0.01) total protein and globulin and decreased (p < 0.05) the plasma cholesterol in comparison to fungal phytase. Decreasing nPP levels in colored slow-growing broilers diet negatively affects growth performance and the use of phytase can partly alleviate these negative effects, but the efficiency of different enzyme sources (bacterial or fungal) was tied to the dietary nPP levels. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Increasing Doses of Lactobacillus Pre-Fermented Rapeseed Product with or without Inclusion of Macroalgae Product on Weaner Piglet Performance and Intestinal Development
Animals 2020, 10(4), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040559 - 27 Mar 2020
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of increasing doses of pre-fermented rapeseed meal (FRM) without or with inclusion of the brown macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum (AN) on weaner piglets’ performance and gut development. Ten days pre-weaning, standardized litters were randomly assigned to one of nine [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of increasing doses of pre-fermented rapeseed meal (FRM) without or with inclusion of the brown macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum (AN) on weaner piglets’ performance and gut development. Ten days pre-weaning, standardized litters were randomly assigned to one of nine isoenergetic and isoproteic diets comprising (on DM basis): no supplement (negative control, NC), 2500 ppm ZnO (positive control, PC), 8, 10, 12, 15 or 25% FRM, and 10% FRM plus 0.6 or 1.0% AN. Fifty piglets receiving the same pre-weaning diets were weaned at 28 days of age and transferred to one pen, where they continued on the pre-weaning diet until day 92. At 41 days, six piglets per treatment were sacrificed for blood and intestinal samplings. The average daily gain was at least sustained at any dose of FRM (increased at 8% FRM, 28–41 days) from 18–41 days similar to PC but unaffected by inclusion of AN. The percentage of piglets that completed the experiment was increased by FRM compared to NC, despite detection of diarrhea symptoms. FRM showed quadratic dose-response effects on colon and mid-jejunum crypts depth, and enterocyte and mid-jejunum villus heights with optimum development at 8% or 10% FRM, respectively, but this was abolished when AN was also added. In conclusion, FRM sustained piglet growth performance and intestinal development similar to ZnO with an optimum inclusion level of 8–10% of dietary DM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Different Time and Frequency of Multienzyme Application on the Efficiency of Broiler Chicken Rearing and Some Selected Metabolic Indicators
Animals 2020, 10(3), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030450 - 08 Mar 2020
Abstract
This study looks at the influence of time and/or frequency of multienzymes application on productivity, carcass characteristics, metabolic profile, and red blood cell characteristics of broiler chickens. Two hundred and eighty, one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler male chicks were randomly distributed into seven treatment [...] Read more.
This study looks at the influence of time and/or frequency of multienzymes application on productivity, carcass characteristics, metabolic profile, and red blood cell characteristics of broiler chickens. Two hundred and eighty, one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler male chicks were randomly distributed into seven treatment groups. Each group consisted of eight replicates of five unsexed birds. The same basal diet was fed in a crumble form to all experimental groups: group one was the unsupplemented control that did not receive multienzymes supplementation. Additionally, multienzymes in water were supplemented in six groups in a factorial arrangement, including three times of application (starter time only which included days 1–21 of age, grower time only which included days 22–37 of age, and starter and grower time which included days 1–37 of age) and two application frequencies (continuously or intermittently). In the continuous application, the multienzymes were added to water over 24 h in a day, while in the intermittent frequency multienzymes were added to water for one day followed by a day off according to the time of application. Regardless of time and frequency of application, enzymes supplementation significantly increased growth rate, feed intake, European Production Index (EPI), protein digestibility, serum albumin, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Intermittent multienzymes application during days 1–21 of age or days 22–37 of age resulted in significantly greater growth, better feed conversion rate (FCR), and higher EPI of broilers during the whole rearing period than those under continuous multienzymes during different growth periods. Besides, intermittent multienzymes addition during days 1–37 of age improved FCR of broiler chicks compared to constant application. The intermittent addition of multienzymes during days 1–21 of age or 22–37 days of age and days 1–37 of age caused a significant increase in dry matter (DM) digestibility than the continuous application. The intermittent addition of multienzymes during days 1–21 of age significantly increased the digestibility of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and crude fiber (CF) compared to continuous application. A similar trend was shown in the digestibility of CP and EE due to intermittent use during days 22–37 of age. Intermittent enzymes addition significantly increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) of groups receiving enzymes during days 22–37 of age compared to continuous application of enzymes. In conclusion, the use of multienzymes intermittently during days 1–21 of age and 22–37 days of age significantly increased growth, improved FCR, and raised EPI. Intermittent use can replace continuous multienzyme applications which can save 68.6% of the cost, even though further research is need from the cost-saving edge. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Waste Mushroom Compost as a Feed Supplement and Its Effects on the Fat Metabolism and Antioxidant Capacity of Broilers
Animals 2020, 10(3), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030445 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Pennisetum purpureum Schum No. 2 waste mushroom compost (PWMC) is the main byproduct when cultivating Pleurotus eryngii. Due to the high mycelium levels in PWMC, it may have potential as a feed supplement for broilers. This study investigated the effects of PWMC [...] Read more.
Pennisetum purpureum Schum No. 2 waste mushroom compost (PWMC) is the main byproduct when cultivating Pleurotus eryngii. Due to the high mycelium levels in PWMC, it may have potential as a feed supplement for broilers. This study investigated the effects of PWMC supplementation on antioxidant capacity and adipose metabolism in broilers. In the study, 240 broilers were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups: basal diet (control), 0.5%, 1%, or 2% PWMC supplementation. Each treatment group had 60 broilers, divided into three replicates. The results showed that supplementation with 0.5% PWMC decreased the feed conversion rate (FCR) from 1.36 to 1.28, compared to the control. Supplementation with 0.5% or 2% PWMC decreased glucose and triglyceride levels, compared to the control (p < 0.0001), the concentrations of adiponectin and oxytocin increased from 5948 to 5709, 11820, and 7938 ng/ mL; and 259 to 447, 873, and 963 pg/ mL, respectively. Toll-like receptor 4 was slightly increased in the 0.5% and 1% PWMC groups. Both interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) were significantly decreased, by about three to five times for IFN-γ (p < 0.0001) and 1.1 to 1.6 times for IL-1ß (p = 0.0002). All antioxidant-related mRNA, including nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and superoxidase dismutase-1 (SOD-1), increased significantly following PWMC supplementation. Both claudin-1 and zonula occludens 1 increased, especially in the 2% PWMC group. Excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) significantly increased by about 5, 12, and 11 times in the 0.5%, 1%, and 2% PWMC groups. All adipolysis-related mRNA were induced in the PWMC treatment groups, further enhancing adipolysis. Overall, 0.5% PWMC supplementation was recommended due to its improving FCR, similar antioxidant capacity, and upregulated adipolysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Protein and Amino Acid Content in Four Brands of Commercial Table Eggs in Retail Markets in Relation to Human Requirements
Animals 2020, 10(3), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030406 - 01 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Considering the common believe that all eggs in the retail market are nutritionally similar, four different commercial sources of eggs (A, B, C, and D) available in a retail market were collected to investigate the crude protein and amino acid content, as well [...] Read more.
Considering the common believe that all eggs in the retail market are nutritionally similar, four different commercial sources of eggs (A, B, C, and D) available in a retail market were collected to investigate the crude protein and amino acid content, as well as the protein quality in the whole edible part of eggs (albumen + yolk), egg albumen, and egg yolk, separately. Five egg samples per source were collected four times during the experimental period, which resulted in a total number of 20 samples that were pooled to finally present five samples per source of eggs. The results show that crude protein in albumen was significantly higher in A and B than that of C and D, but the difference was found among edible parts of eggs such as yolk > whole edible part > albumen. Essential amino acids (arginine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, methionine + cysteine, phenylalanine, phenylalanine + tyrosine, threonine, and valine) of eggs significantly differed according to the source of eggs, but eggs from different sources could provide from 17.4–26.7% of recommended daily allowance (RDA) of amino acids for adults. Essential amino acids (EAAs) were higher (p ≤ 0.05) in eggs from sources A and B than in source D, while source C exhibited intermediate values. Source B had greater (p ≤ 0.05) non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) than did sources C and D in whole edible egg, while source A displayed intermediate values. The phenylalanine + tyrosine, histidine, and lysine were the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd limiting amino acids in all sources of eggs. In conclusion, the investigated eggs showed different EAAs/NEAAs ratio and antioxidant amino acids, indicating a potential for enhancing nutritional values and extending the shelf life of eggs by different nutritional additions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Chemical Characterisation and in Vitro Gas Production Kinetics of Eight Faba Bean Varieties
Animals 2020, 10(3), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030398 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Faba bean is an important vegetable protein source for ruminant diets. This research aimed to compare the nutritional characteristics of four commercial and four local cultivars in order to better characterise the local ones and promote their use in animal nutrition. The seeds’ [...] Read more.
Faba bean is an important vegetable protein source for ruminant diets. This research aimed to compare the nutritional characteristics of four commercial and four local cultivars in order to better characterise the local ones and promote their use in animal nutrition. The seeds’ weight and the chemical composition, including starch and the energy, was evaluated. The in vitro fermentation characteristics were studied for 48 h using bull’s rumen fluid as inoculum. All the varieties showed the values’ weight corresponding to the specific botanical typology. The varieties significantly differed for protein, starch and lignin (p < 0.01) and structural carbohydrates (p < 0.05) concentration. No significant differences were observed for energy content. All the in vitro fermentation parameters resulted significantly different among the varieties. Organic matter degradability ranged between 89.9% and 85.1% and the potential gas production from 367 to 325 mL/g. The Pearson’s analysis showed significant correlation between morphological characteristics, chemical data and in vitro fermentation parameters. In conclusion, this investigation confirms the possibility of using local faba bean varieties (i.e., Aquino, Castrocielo, 13#5, 4#4) in ruminant nutrition with the advantage that, being local natural resources, they are better adapted to the climate and agronomic conditions and limit environmental impact. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Honey Bee Pollen in Meagre (Argyrosomus regius) Juvenile Diets: Effects on Growth, Diet Digestibility, Intestinal Traits, and Biochemical Markers Related to Health and Stress
Animals 2020, 10(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10020231 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
This research aimed to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of honey bee pollen (HBP) in meagre (Argyrosoumus regius) juveniles’ diets on growth performance, diet digestibility, intestinal morphology, and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, stress-related molecular markers and biochemical blood profile of fish were [...] Read more.
This research aimed to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of honey bee pollen (HBP) in meagre (Argyrosoumus regius) juveniles’ diets on growth performance, diet digestibility, intestinal morphology, and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, stress-related molecular markers and biochemical blood profile of fish were evaluated, together with mineral trace and toxic element concentration in pollen and diets. Specimens of meagre (360) of 3.34 ± 0.14 g initial body weight, were randomly allocated to twelve 500 L circular tanks (30 fish per tank). Four diets were formulated: a control diet and three experimental diets with 1%, 2.5%, and 4% of HBP inclusion. All the growth parameters and crude protein and ether extract digestibility coefficients were negatively linearly affected by increased HBP inclusion (p < 0.0001). Histology of medium intestine showed slight signs of alterations in group HPB1 and HPB2.5 compared to control. Fish from HBP4 group showed severe alterations at the intestinal mucosa level. Immunohistochemical detection of TNF-α in the medium intestine showed the presence of TNF-α+ cells in the lamina propria, which resulted in accordance with the increased level of the TNF-α protein detected by immunoblotting in the liver. This stress situation was confirmed by the increased hepatic level of HSP70 (p < 0.05) in fish fed the HBP4 diet and by the linear decrease of total serum protein levels in HBP-containing diets (p < 0.0001). These negative effects can be related to the ultrastructure of the bee pollen grain walls, which make the bioactive substances unavailable and can irritate the intestine of a carnivorous fish such as meagre. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Fennel Seed Powder Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, and Economic Efficiency of Broilers under Thermoneutral and Chronic Heat Stress Conditions
Animals 2020, 10(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10020206 - 26 Jan 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Nowadays, phytogenic products have received great attention as a growth promoter due to their safety and environmentally friendly effect as a replacement for classical growth promoters such as antibiotics in animal nutrition. Thus, this research seeks the possibility of using fennel seed powder [...] Read more.
Nowadays, phytogenic products have received great attention as a growth promoter due to their safety and environmentally friendly effect as a replacement for classical growth promoters such as antibiotics in animal nutrition. Thus, this research seeks the possibility of using fennel seed powder (FSP) as a dietary additive from 19 to 41 days of age on productive performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and production efficiency of broiler chickens raised under thermoneutral and chronic heat stress conditions. Thus, 216 one-day-old Ross-308 broiler chicks were divided into two equal groups. The first group was placed in an independent temperature-controlled room at 23 ± 2 °C. The broiler chicks from the second group were placed in a heat-stressed room and exposed to chronic heat stress conditions (32 ± 2 °C) for seven hours per day from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. The experimental design was 2 × 3 factorial including two environmental temperatures (thermoneutral vs chronic heat stress) and three experimental diets that contained 0, 1.6, and 3.2% FSP. The chickens were randomly assigned to 18-floor pens per room temperature, representing six replicates per treatment and six birds per replicate. The results showed that dietary fennel seed powder during days 19–41 of age enhanced the growth rate of broiler chickens and improved breast meat redness and reduced temperature under chronic heat stress. In conclusion, 3.2% of fennel seed powder could be used as an agent for enhancing the broiler’s tolerance during chronic heat stress condition from 19 to 41 days of age. Moreover, it is necessary to study in further detail the nitrite and nitrate contents in FSP and their impacts on muscle redness (a*) as well as muscle temperature. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fatty Acid Signatures in Different Tissues of Mediterranean Yellowtail, Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810), Fed Diets Containing Different Levels of Vegetable and Fish Oils
Animals 2020, 10(2), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10020198 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The study aimed to evaluate how replacing different proportions of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oils (VO) in the diet of Mediterranean yellowtail, Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810), affects the fatty acids (FA) signature, i.e.; overall FA profile, in different tissues. A total of [...] Read more.
The study aimed to evaluate how replacing different proportions of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oils (VO) in the diet of Mediterranean yellowtail, Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810), affects the fatty acids (FA) signature, i.e.; overall FA profile, in different tissues. A total of 225 Mediterranean yellowtail juveniles (initial live weight: 176 ± 3.62 g) were fed for 109 days with one of three diets: A control diet (FO 100), with FO as the only lipid source, or diets with 75% and 100% of FO replaced with a VO mixture. At the end of the feeding trial, the brains, muscles, livers, and visceral fat were sampled in four fish per tank (12 per treatment), and their fat were extracted and used for FA analysis. The FA signatures of red and white muscle, liver, and visceral fat tissues changed when the dietary FA source changed, whereas FA signatures in the brain were rather robust to such dietary changes. These new insights might help evaluate whether key physiological functions are preserved when fish are fed diets with low FO levels, as well as define the dietary FA requirements of Mediterranean yellowtail to improve the sustainability of the production and welfare of the fish. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quality of Eggs and Albumen Technological Properties as Affected by Hermetia Illucens Larvae Meal in Hens’ Diet and Hen Age
Animals 2020, 10(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010081 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The impact on the egg quality and the albumen technological properties were here evaluated as affected by diet and hen age (A) of 162 Hy-line Brown hens. Three isoproteic and isoenergetic diets were formulated respecting the requirements for Hy-line hens: the control diet [...] Read more.
The impact on the egg quality and the albumen technological properties were here evaluated as affected by diet and hen age (A) of 162 Hy-line Brown hens. Three isoproteic and isoenergetic diets were formulated respecting the requirements for Hy-line hens: the control diet (C) based on conventional protein sources, and other two where vegetable proteins were substituted at 25% (HI25) and 50% (HI50) by partially defatted Hermetia illucens larva meal (HI). Ten eggs collected from each group at the hen ages of 20, 27, and 35 weeks were evaluated. The eggshell percentage and thickness were significantly reduced in the HI50 eggs (11.93% and 476 µm, respectively) compared to the C (12.34%, 542 µm) and HI25 (12.54%, 516 µm). The aging lowered (p = 0.05) the protein and increased (p < 0.001) water contents of the eggs. Although the foam capacity of the HI50 albumen was halved than the C group (p < 0.05), it was unaffected by the aging. Additionally, this did not impair the volume and the textural properties of a batter (angel cake) in which it was included. On the opposite, the textural characteristics of the cake made by the oldest hens (i.e., 35 wk-old) were compromised. In conclusion, the diet and hen age differently affected egg quality and its technological properties, which could be positive to obtain eggs to destine directly to the market or to the egg industry. Full article
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2019

Jump to: 2021, 2020

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Combined Use of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and Aspergillus Oryzae with Phytase Fermentation Products on Growth, Inflammatory, and Intestinal Morphology in Broilers
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121051 - 01 Dec 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae are both ancient probiotic species traditionally used as microbes for brewing beer and soy sauce, respectively. This study investigated the effect of adding these two probiotics with phytase fermentation products to the broilers diet. Fermented products possess protease [...] Read more.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae are both ancient probiotic species traditionally used as microbes for brewing beer and soy sauce, respectively. This study investigated the effect of adding these two probiotics with phytase fermentation products to the broilers diet. Fermented products possess protease and cellulase, and the activities were 777.1 and 189.5 U/g dry matter (DM) on S. cerevisiae fermented products (SCFP) and 190 and 213.4 U/g DM on A. oryzae fermented products (AOFP), respectively. Liposaccharides stimulated PBMCs to produce nitric oxide to 120 μmol. Both SCFP and AOFP reduced lipopolysaccharides stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) nitric oxide release to 40 and 60 μmol, respectively. Nevertheless, in an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, SCFP and AOFP also increased the survival rate of lipopolysaccharides stimulated PBMCs by almost two-fold compared to the negative control. A total of 240 broilers were divided into four groups as Control, SCFP 0.1% (SCFP), SCFP 0.05% + AOFP 0.05% (SAFP), and AOFP 0.1% (AOFP) groups, respectively. Each group had 20 broilers, and three replicate pens. The results showed that the addition of SCFP, SAFP, and AOFP groups did not affect the growth performances, but increased the jejunum value of villus height and villus: crypt ratio on SAFP and AOFP groups compared to the control and SCFP groups. Furthermore, adding SCFP, SAFP, and AOFP significantly reduced the number of Clostridium perfringens in ileum chyme. SCFP, SAFP, and AOFP significantly reduced the amount of interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthases, interferon-γ, and nuclear factor kappa B mRNA expression in PBMCs, especially in the AOFP group. In summary, all the SCFP, SAFP, and AOFP groups can be suggested as a functional feed additive since they enhanced villus: crypt ratio and decreased inflammation-related mRNA expression, especially for AOFP group in broilers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Diet Inclusion of Common Vetch Hay Versus Alfalfa Hay on the Body Weight Gain, Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency, Energy Balance, and Enteric Methane Emissions of Crossbred Simmental Cattle
Animals 2019, 9(11), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110983 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A low nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE, the ratio of retained N to N intake) and high methane (CH4) emissions of ruminants can lead to potentially high diet protein wastage and directly contribute to global warming. Diet manipulation is the most effective [...] Read more.
A low nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE, the ratio of retained N to N intake) and high methane (CH4) emissions of ruminants can lead to potentially high diet protein wastage and directly contribute to global warming. Diet manipulation is the most effective way to improve NUE or reduce CH4 emissions. This study investigated how replacing oat hay with alfalfa hay (AH) or common vetch hay (CVH) with different proportions (20% (20) and 40% (40) of the total dry matter (DM) allowance) affects the body weight gain (BWG), NUE, and CH4 emissions of crossbred Simmental cattle. The forage dry matter intake (DMI) and the total DMI of cattle fed on a CVH40 diet were significantly higher than the values for those fed on AH20 or AH40 diets (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the BWG for the four treatments observed, however, nutrient digestibility significantly decreased in the AH40 diet as compared with the AH20 diet (p < 0.05). The NUE was significantly lower in AH40 than in CVH20. The CH4 emissions were significantly lower for the CVH40 diet than with the AH20 diet (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that a 20% AH and 40% CVH substitution for oat hay are the optimal proportions to maintain the BWG, NUE, nutrient digestibility, and reduce the CH4 emissions of crossbred Simmental cattle. Overall, CVH has a greater potential to reduce CH4 emissions than AH. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Iodine Supplemented Diet Positively Affect Immune Response and Dairy Product Quality in Fresian Cow
Animals 2019, 9(11), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110866 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The effects of iodine supplementation on the whole-transcriptome of dairy cow using RNA sequencing has been investigated in this study. Iodine did not influence the milk composition, while an improvement was observed in the immune response as well as in the quality of [...] Read more.
The effects of iodine supplementation on the whole-transcriptome of dairy cow using RNA sequencing has been investigated in this study. Iodine did not influence the milk composition, while an improvement was observed in the immune response as well as in the quality of dairy product. Indeed, the iodine intake specifically influenced the expression of 525 genes and the pathway analysis demonstrated that the most affected among them were related to immune response and oxidative stress. As a consequence, we indirectly showed a better response to bacterial infection because of the reduction of somatic cell counts; furthermore, an improvement of dairy product quality was observed since lipid oxidation reduced in fresh cheese. Such findings, together with the higher milk iodine content, clearly demonstrated that iodine supplementation in dairy cow could represent a beneficial practice to preserve animal health and to improve the nutraceutical properties of milk and its derived products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Partial Replacment of Dietary Forage Using Kelp Powder (Thallus laminariae) on Ruminal Fermentation and Lactation Performances of Dairy Cows
Animals 2019, 9(10), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100852 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Background: Kelp powder, which was rich in novel oligosaccharides and iodine might be utilized by the rumen microbiome, promoted the ruminal fermentation and finally enhanced the lactation performance of dairy cows. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of [...] Read more.
Background: Kelp powder, which was rich in novel oligosaccharides and iodine might be utilized by the rumen microbiome, promoted the ruminal fermentation and finally enhanced the lactation performance of dairy cows. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of kelp powder partially replacing dietary forage on rumen fermentation and lactation performance of dairy cows. (2) Methods: In the present study, 20 Chinese Holstein dairy cows were randomly divided into two treatments, a control diet (CON) and a kelp powder replacing diet (Kelp) for a 35-d long trial. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk quality, ruminal fermentable parameters, and rumen microbiota were measured to investigate the effects of kelp powder feeding on dairy cows. (3) Results: On the lactation performance, kelp significantly increased milk iodine content and effectively enhanced milk production and milk fat content. On the fermentable aspects, kelp significantly raised TVFA while reducing the ammonia-N content. On the rumen microbial aspect, kelp feeding significantly promoted the proliferation of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria while suppressing Bacteroidetes. (4) Conclusion: kelp powder as an ingredient of feedstuff might promote the rumen fermentation ability and effectively increase milk fat and iodine content, and consequently improve the milk nutritional value. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Anti-Oxidation and Mechanism of Essential Oil of Paederia scandens in the NAFLD Model of Chicken
Animals 2019, 9(10), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100850 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of the study is to determine the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of oxidative stress and detect the anti-oxidative target of essential oil of Paederia scandens in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Chicken NAFLD was modeled by feeding with a high-capacity diet and [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to determine the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of oxidative stress and detect the anti-oxidative target of essential oil of Paederia scandens in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Chicken NAFLD was modeled by feeding with a high-capacity diet and Paederia scandens essential oil was used to treat the disease. The levels of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the differential proteins and network of protein–protein interactions were investigated in model and drug-treated groups. The results showed that essential oil of Paederia scandens down regulated the hepatic ROS and MDA level significantly (p < 0.05 and 0.01, respectively). The heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSP7C) was down regulated significantly, which was in the center of the network and interacted with 22 other proteins. The results showed that oxidative stress played an important role in the pathogenesis of chicken NAFLD. The essential oil of Paederia scandens showed good anti-oxidation activity by down regulating the HSP7C protein, which can be used as a potential therapeutic target in chicken NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Age and Weaning on Growth Performance, Rumen Fermentation, and Serum Parameters in Lambs Fed Starter with Limited Ewe–Lamb Interaction
Animals 2019, 9(10), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100825 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Sixty neonatal Hu lambs were weaned at either 21 (n = 30) (early weaning, EW) or 49 days (n = 30) of age (control, CON). The starter intake and body weight (BW) of lambs was recorded weekly from birth to 63 days of [...] Read more.
Sixty neonatal Hu lambs were weaned at either 21 (n = 30) (early weaning, EW) or 49 days (n = 30) of age (control, CON). The starter intake and body weight (BW) of lambs was recorded weekly from birth to 63 days of age. Diarrhea rate of lambs was measured from birth to 35 days. Six randomly selected lambs from each treatment were slaughtered at 26, 35, and 63 days of age, respectively. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, as well as serum parameters including immunity, antioxidant status, and inflammatory parameters from randomly selected lambs from each treatment were measured. There was no difference in BW at birth and day 21 between the two groups of lambs (p > 0.05). However, BW of the lambs in the EW group was significantly lower than those in the CON group (p < 0.01) from 28 to 49 days of age. Average daily gain (ADG) of the lambs in the EW group was significantly lower than those in the CON group (p < 0.01) at three weeks after early weaning. Starter intake of the lambs in the EW group was obviously higher than that in the CON group (p < 0.01) from day 28 to 49. In addition, the diarrhea rate was significantly higher than that in the CON group from day 5 to 14 after weaning (p < 0.01). The EW group had heavier carcasses (p < 0.01) and rumen relative to whole stomach weights (p < 0.01). Rumen pH was increased by age (p < 0.01) and was not affected by early weaning (p > 0.05). Early weaning decreased abomasum relative to whole stomach weight (p < 0.01) and increased total VFA concentrations (p < 0.01) at day 26. There was no difference in lambs’ immunity and stress indicators (p > 0.05). The results indicated that lambs weaned at 21 days of age had decreased ADG and higher diarrhea rate, although the overall immunity was not compromised. Long-term study is needed to further validate the feasibility of early weaning strategy in lambs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Supplementation of Lysophospholipids Affects Feed Digestion in Lambs
Animals 2019, 9(10), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100805 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Five experiments were conducted to examine effects of lysophospholipids (LPL) on live weight gain, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation parameters, serum biochemical parameters and rumen bacterial community profile in fattening lambs. Two dietary treatments (pelleted complete feed supplemented without (control diet; CON) or with [...] Read more.
Five experiments were conducted to examine effects of lysophospholipids (LPL) on live weight gain, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation parameters, serum biochemical parameters and rumen bacterial community profile in fattening lambs. Two dietary treatments (pelleted complete feed supplemented without (control diet; CON) or with 0.05% LPL on dry matter basis) were tested in these experiments. Feed and water were provided ad libitum to lambs. The results showed that average daily gain (ADG) tended to increase or was not affected by LPL supplementation. Compared with CON, the supplementation of LPL resulted in an increase in dry matter, crude protein and organic matter digestibilities, and a decrease in neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibilities. Ruminal pH values did not change with LPL supplementation, but the concentrations of ammonia and total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were increased. The molar proportion of major individual SCFAs and the ratio of acetate to propionate were not affected by LPL supplementation. While the activity of lipase was decreased with LPL supplementation, all other serum biochemical parameters did not change. Rumen bacterial community was altered by LPL supplementation with the relative abundance of fibrolytic bacteria in the total bacterial population, such as Prevotella, decreased. In conclusion, LPL supplementation can alter feed digestion, but may not result in consistent positive responses in animal growth performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vivo Toxicity and In Vitro Solubility Assessment of Pre-Treated Struvite as a Potential Alternative Phosphorus Source in Animal Feed
Animals 2019, 9(10), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100785 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Apart from using as fertilizer for plants, the application of struvite may be expanded to animal feed industries through proper pre-treatment. This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using pre-treated struvite (microwave irradiated struvite (MS) and incinerated struvite (IS)) in [...] Read more.
Apart from using as fertilizer for plants, the application of struvite may be expanded to animal feed industries through proper pre-treatment. This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using pre-treated struvite (microwave irradiated struvite (MS) and incinerated struvite (IS)) in animal feeds. For safety assessment, an in vivo toxicity experiment using thirty female Sprague Dawley rats (average body weight (BW) of 200 ± 10 g) was conducted. The rats were randomly divided into five groups, including a control. Based on the BW, MS and IS were applied daily by oral administration with 1 and 10 mg kg−1-BW (MS1 and MS10; IS1 and IS10) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a vehicle. A series of jar tests were conducted for four hours to check the solubility of the MS and IS at different pH (pH 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7) and compared to a commercial P source (monocalcium phosphate, MCP, control). The toxicity experiment results showed no significant differences among the treatments in BW and organ (liver, kidney, heart, and lung) weight of rats (p > 0.05). There were no adverse effects on blood parameters and the histopathological examination showed no inflammation in the organ tissues in MS and IS treated groups compared to the control. In an in vitro solubility test, no significant difference was observed in ortho-phosphate (O-P) solubility from the MCP and MS at pH 2 and 4 (p > 0.05), while O-P solubility from MS at pH 5 to 7 was higher than MCP and found to be significantly different (p < 0.05). O-P solubility from IS was the lowest among the treatments and significantly different from MCP and MS in all the experiments (p < 0.05). The results of this study not only suggest that the struvite pre-treated as MS could be a potential alternative source of P in animal feed but also motivate further studies with more stringent designs to better examine the potential of struvite application in diverse fields. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Potential Use of Layer Litter in Awassi Lamb Diet: Its Effects on Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality
Animals 2019, 9(10), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100782 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Carcass parameters and meat quality in lambs that consumed diets having layer hen litter (LL) were evaluated in a complete randomized study. Forty-two lambs were allocated equally (14 lambs/treatment diet) into one of three iso-nitrogenous diets for 75 days. To partially replace soybean [...] Read more.
Carcass parameters and meat quality in lambs that consumed diets having layer hen litter (LL) were evaluated in a complete randomized study. Forty-two lambs were allocated equally (14 lambs/treatment diet) into one of three iso-nitrogenous diets for 75 days. To partially replace soybean meal and barley, LL was given at 0 (LL0), 150 (LL150), or 300 g/kg (LL300) of dietary dry matter (DM). At the termination of the trial, the characteristics of carcasses (hot and cold carcass weight, dressing percentage, and carcass cuts) and meat quality (Musculus longissimus linear dimensions, ultimate pH, cooking loss, water holding capacity (WHC), shear force (SF), color coordinates) were measured after slaughtering all lambs. Longissimus muscle weight was greatest (p < 0.05) for the LL150. For the dissected loin, intermuscular fat content was lowest for the LL0 diet. However, subcutaneous fat content was lower (p < 0.05) in the LL300 diet than LL0 and LL150 diets. Rib fat depth and Musculus longissimus area were greater (p < 0.05) for LL150 than L0. No differences were found in meat pH or color parameters among treatments but WHC and SF were lower in L0 lambs than in lambs fed LL containing diets. Cooking loss was greater for the LL300 diet than the LL0 diet. In summary, quality of meat and carcasses data indicate the possibility of inclusion of LL up to 300 g/kg DM to growing Awassi lambs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Reconstituted, Acidified Reconstituted Milk or Acidified Fresh Milk on Growth Performance, Diarrhea Rate, and Hematological Parameters in Preweaning Dairy Calves
Animals 2019, 9(10), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100778 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The present experiment was carried out to assess the effects of reconstituted milk (RM), acidified reconstituted milk (ARM), and acidified fresh milk (AFM) on growth performance, diarrhea rate, and hematological parameters of preweaning dairy calves. For this purpose, a total of 27 Holstein [...] Read more.
The present experiment was carried out to assess the effects of reconstituted milk (RM), acidified reconstituted milk (ARM), and acidified fresh milk (AFM) on growth performance, diarrhea rate, and hematological parameters of preweaning dairy calves. For this purpose, a total of 27 Holstein female calves (one month of age) with initial body weight of (67.46 ± 4.08) kg were divided into three groups in such a way that each group contained nine calves. Calves were housed individually, and starter was offered ad libitum to each calf. The dietary treatments were RM, ARM, and AFM. The highest milk intake was observed in calves receiving AFM as compared to other treatments (p < 0.01). Calves fed AFM had more feed intake than those fed ARM and RM (p < 0.01). Feed efficiency was significantly lower for calves offered ARM than those offered RM and AFM (p < 0.01). A lower withers height growth was found for calves fed RM than those fed ARM and AFM (p <0.05). Diarrhea rate and white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocytes (LYM) counts were greater for calves fed RM than those fed ARM and AFM (p < 0.05). These findings suggested that ARM and AFM had positive effects on growth performance and health status of the preweaning dairy calves. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of Mannan Oligosaccharides on Gas Emission, Protein and Energy Utilization, and Fasting Metabolism in Sheep
Animals 2019, 9(10), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100741 - 28 Sep 2019
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on in vitro and in vivo gas emission, utilization of crude protein (CP) and energy, and relative parameters of sheep under fasting metabolism conditions. In vitro gas productions were evaluated over 12 h in [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on in vitro and in vivo gas emission, utilization of crude protein (CP) and energy, and relative parameters of sheep under fasting metabolism conditions. In vitro gas productions were evaluated over 12 h in sheep diets containing different amounts of MOS (from 0% to 6.0%/kg, the increment was 0.5%). A control experiment was used to assess the gas emission, utilization of CP and energy, and fasting metabolism in control sheep and sheep treated with 2.0% MOS over 24 days (d). The results showed that 2.0% MOS supplementation led to the lowest in vitro CO2 production and less CH4 production, while also leading to decrease in vivo nutrients intake, CP and energy excretion, digested and retained CP, and energy released as CH4 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 2.0% MOS supplementation appeared to decrease in vivo O2 consumption and CH4 production per metabolic body weight (BW0.75), and increase the CP retention rate of sheep (p < 0.074). MOS did not affect other parameters, along with the same parameters of sheep under fasting metabolism conditions (p > 0.05). The findings indicate MOS has only slight effects on the gas emission and nutrients and energy metabolism of sheep. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Supplementation with Trimethylglycine (Betaine) and/or Vitamins on Semen Quality, Fertility, Antioxidant Status, DNA Repair and Welfare of Roosters Exposed to Chronic Heat Stress
Animals 2019, 9(8), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080547 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the influence of betaine (Bet, 1000 mg/kg), with or without vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg ascorbic acid) and/or vitamin E (VE, 150 mg/kg α-tocopherol acetate) on semen quality, seminal and blood plasma constituents, antioxidants’ status, DNA repair, and [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the influence of betaine (Bet, 1000 mg/kg), with or without vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg ascorbic acid) and/or vitamin E (VE, 150 mg/kg α-tocopherol acetate) on semen quality, seminal and blood plasma constituents, antioxidants’ status, DNA repair, and the welfare of chronic heat stress (CHS)-exposed roosters. A total of 54 roosters were divided into six groups of nine replicates. One group was kept under thermoneutral conditions, whereas the other five were kept under CHS. One of the five groups served as an unsupplemented CHS group, and was fed with a basal diet. The other four CHS groups were supplemented with Bet, Bet + VC, Bet + VE, and Bet + VC + VE, respectively. Our data indicate that supplementation with Bet, Bet + VC, Bet + VE, and Bet + VC + VE, resulted in complete recovery of the CHS effect on sperm concentration and livability, semen pH, and fertility compared to the thermoneutral group. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was significantly (p < 0.05) increased with Bet, with or without vitamins, compared to the thermoneutral and CHS groups. Urea and blood plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) were totally recovered with Bet, with or without vitamin treatments. Both the jejunum and ileum DNA were partially recovered following Bet, with or without vitamin supplementation. In conclusion, Bet, at 1000 mg/kg feed, may be a useful agent for increasing semen quality, fertility, welfare, and to improve the breeding strategy of breeder males in hot climates. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Former Foodstuff Products in Tenebrio Molitor Rearing: Effects on Growth, Chemical Composition, Microbiological Load, and Antioxidant Status
Animals 2019, 9(8), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080484 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
Tenebrio molitor (mealworm) larvae represent one of the most interesting edible insects and could be reared on alternative feeds, such as former foodstuff products (FFPs). In the present work, five different FFPs (brewery spent grains, bread and cookie leftovers, and mixes of brewer’s [...] Read more.
Tenebrio molitor (mealworm) larvae represent one of the most interesting edible insects and could be reared on alternative feeds, such as former foodstuff products (FFPs). In the present work, five different FFPs (brewery spent grains, bread and cookie leftovers, and mixes of brewer’s spent grain or bread with cookies) were employed as feeding substrates. Larvae’s growth performances, chemical composition, microbial loads, and antioxidant status were determined. Chemical compositions of the substrates affected all the tested parameters. Brewery spent grains-fed larvae showed a faster growth period and higher crude protein and carbohydrate contents. The use of cookies as a single substrate or their addition to spent grains or bread increased the lipids contents, while growth was delayed. Microbial loads were partially affected by the fed diet. The antioxidant status of larvae showed different concentrations of tocopherols isoforms (δ, γ, α) in relation to the diet; however, no differences were detected in relation to the global antioxidant capacity (2,2-azinobis-(3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS reducing activity; 1,1-diphenyl-2-pircydrazyl, DPPH radical scavenging activity; ferric reducing ability, FRAP). Results point out a high plasticity of mealworm larvae and the potential to tailor the final outcomes in relation to the substrate employed. Mealworms could be practically reared on FFPs to produce food-feed with high nutrient values. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.


 

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