Fish Immunology and Vaccination

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Aquatic Animals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 6588

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Nord University, 8026 Bodø, Norway
Interests: fish immunology; fish health and diseases; microbiology; molecular biology and aquaculture

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Guest Editor
International College, International Program in Ornamental Fish Technology and Aquatic Animal Health, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
Interests: aquaculture; fish disease; fish immunology and vaccine development

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Guest Editor
ICAR-Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, Chennai, India
Interests: fish genetics; biotechnology; fish vaccines and microbiome

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Guest Editor
Department of Animal and Aquaculture Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oluf Thesens vei 6, 1433 Ås, Norway
Interests: fish immunology; fish vaccines; seasonal immunity; immuno nutrition; aquaculture; flow cytometry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Disease outbreaks are considered to be significant constraints for the expansion of the aquaculture industry, and fish health management has become a key issue in combating infectious and emerging diseases. Vaccination has been considered one of the most effective prophylactic measures for the prevention of disease. However, understanding the fish immune system and its response to different vaccines and novel immunostimulants is crucial for the success and development of effective vaccination strategies for sustainable aquaculture. This Special Issue aims to cover the basic and applied research in the field of fish and shellfish immunology, vaccines, applications of novel immunostimulants and host–pathogen interactions. Original research and reviews addressing, but not limited to, the following areas are welcome for submission:

  • Fish and shellfish innate immunity
  • Identification and functional evaluation of innate immune molecules in fish and shellfish
  • Pathogen recognition molecules
  • Characterisation of immune cells
  • Mucosal immunology
  • Genomic, transcriptomic and immunome studies
  • Application of immunostimulants and adjuvants in fish
  • Fish vaccine development and mechanism of vaccine protection in fish
  • Immunity and probiotics

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Prabhugouda Siriyappagouder
Dr. Omkar Byadgi
Dr. Tharabenahalli Nagaraju Vinay
Dr. Ruth Montero
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • fish immunology

  • vaccines
  • immunity
  • novel treatments
  • antibody

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 4421 KiB  
Article
A Potential Nervous Necrosis Virus (NNV) Live Vaccine for Sole Obtained by Genomic Modification
by Lucía Vázquez-Salgado, Sandra Souto, José G. Olveira and Isabel Bandín
Animals 2024, 14(6), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14060983 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER) is a neurological infectious fish disease that causes vacuolization and necrosis in the central nervous system, which lead to swimming abnormalities and, generally, host death in the early stages of development. VER is caused by the Nervous Necrosis [...] Read more.
Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER) is a neurological infectious fish disease that causes vacuolization and necrosis in the central nervous system, which lead to swimming abnormalities and, generally, host death in the early stages of development. VER is caused by the Nervous Necrosis Virus (NNV), a non-enveloped virus with a bisegmented and positive-stranded (+) RNA genome. The largest segment (RNA1) codes for viral polymerase while capsid protein is encoded by RNA2. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a reverse-engineered RGNNV/SJNNV strain that harbors mutations in both 3′NCRs (position 3073 of RNA1 and 1408 and 1412 of RNA2) as an attenuated live vaccine for sole. The attenuation of this strain was confirmed through experimental infections in sole at 22 °C. Vaccination trials were performed by bath, intramuscular, and intraperitoneal injection, at two temperatures (18 and 22 °C). Our results indicate the improved survival of vaccinated fish and delayed and poorer viral replication, as well as an overexpression of immune response genes linked to T cell markers (cd4 and cd8), to an early inflammatory response (tlr7 and tnfα), and to antiviral activity (rtp3 and mx). In conclusion, our study indicates that the attenuated strain is a good vaccine candidate as it favors sole survival upon infection with the wt strain while inducing a significant immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Immunology and Vaccination)
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12 pages, 2824 KiB  
Article
Bivalent Vaccine against Streptococcus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): A Laboratory-Phase and Large-Scale Study
by Açucena Veleh Rivas, Angelo Gabriel Vidal dos Santos, Adrieli Barboza de Souza, Gilson Bueno Junior, Gabriela Fernandes de Souza, Estevam Martins de Souza, Louisiane de Carvalho Nunes and Kelvinson Fernandes Viana
Animals 2023, 13(21), 3338; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13213338 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1319
Abstract
One of the main factors limiting tilapia’s production is the occurrence of infections caused by Aeromonas and Streptococcus species. This work intended to evaluate a bivalent vaccine against A. hydrophila and S. agalactiae by intraperitoneal (i.p) administration in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus [...] Read more.
One of the main factors limiting tilapia’s production is the occurrence of infections caused by Aeromonas and Streptococcus species. This work intended to evaluate a bivalent vaccine against A. hydrophila and S. agalactiae by intraperitoneal (i.p) administration in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Brazil. The study was carried out in two phases: one in the laboratory, on a small scale, and from the results obtained, the study was expanded to a large scale in a production system in cages. The vaccine proved to be safe and effective in laboratory tests, with a vaccine efficacy (VE) of 93.66%. However, in large-scale tests with 12,000 tilapias, the VE was 59.14%, with a better food conversion ratio (1.54 kg) in the vaccinated group compared to the control group (1.27 kg). These results corroborate the efficiency of this tested vaccine; however, they indicate the need for field tests to attest to real protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Immunology and Vaccination)
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20 pages, 9018 KiB  
Article
Immunogenicity and Efficacy of a Feed-Based Bivalent Vaccine against Streptococcosis and Motile Aeromonad Septicemia in Red Hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.)
by Nur Shidaa Mohd Ali, Mohd Zamri Saad, Mohammad Noor Amal Azmai, Annas Salleh, Zarirah Mohamed Zulperi, Tilusha Manchanayake, Muhammad Amir Danial Zahaludin, Lukman Basri, Aslah Mohamad and Ina Salwany Md Yasin
Animals 2023, 13(8), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13081346 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
Streptococcosis and motile Aeromonad septicemia (MAS) are the main bacterial diseases in tilapia culture worldwide, causing significant economic losses. Vaccination is an effective method of preventing diseases and contributes to economic sustainability. This study investigated the immuno-protective efficacy of a newly developed feed-based [...] Read more.
Streptococcosis and motile Aeromonad septicemia (MAS) are the main bacterial diseases in tilapia culture worldwide, causing significant economic losses. Vaccination is an effective method of preventing diseases and contributes to economic sustainability. This study investigated the immuno-protective efficacy of a newly developed feed-based bivalent vaccine against streptococcosis and MAS in red hybrid tilapia. The feed-based bivalent vaccine pellet was developed by incorporating the formalin-killed S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila antigens into a commercial feed pellet with palm oil as the adjuvant. The bivalent vaccine was subjected to feed quality analyses. For immunological analyses, 900 fish (12.94 ± 0.46 g) were divided into two treatment groups in triplicate. Fish in Group 1 were unvaccinated (control), while those in Group 2 were vaccinated with the bivalent vaccine. The bivalent vaccine was delivered orally at 5% of the fish’s body weight for three consecutive days on week 0, followed by boosters on weeks 2 and 6. Lysozyme and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) on serum, gut lavage, and skin mucus were performed every week for 16 weeks. Lysozyme activity in vaccinated fish was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than in unvaccinated fish following vaccination. Similarly, the IgM antibody levels of vaccinated fish were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher after vaccination. The bivalent vaccine provided high protective efficacy against S. agalactiae (80.00 ± 10.00%) and A. hydrophila (90.00 ± 10.00%) and partial cross-protective efficacy against S. iniae (63.33 ± 5.77%) and A. veronii (60.00 ± 10.00%). During the challenge test, fewer clinical and gross lesions were observed in vaccinated fish compared with unvaccinated fish. Histopathological assessment showed less severe pathological changes in selected organs than the unvaccinated fish. This study showed that vaccination with a feed-based bivalent vaccine improves immunological responses in red hybrid tilapia, and thus protects against streptococcosis and MAS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Immunology and Vaccination)
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18 pages, 9971 KiB  
Article
Oral Vaccination of Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) against Largemouth Bass Ranavirus (LMBV) Using Yeast Surface Display Technology
by Mengjie Zhang, Xiaoyu Chen, Mingyang Xue, Nan Jiang, Yiqun Li, Yuding Fan, Peng Zhang, Naicheng Liu, Zidong Xiao, Qinghua Zhang and Yong Zhou
Animals 2023, 13(7), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13071183 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Largemouth bass ranavirus (LMBV) infects largemouth bass, leading to significant mortality and economic losses. There are no safe and effective drugs against this disease. Oral vaccines that directly target the intestinal mucosal immune system play an important role in resisting pathogens. Herein, the [...] Read more.
Largemouth bass ranavirus (LMBV) infects largemouth bass, leading to significant mortality and economic losses. There are no safe and effective drugs against this disease. Oral vaccines that directly target the intestinal mucosal immune system play an important role in resisting pathogens. Herein, the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB, a mucosal immune adjuvant) and the LMBV main capsid protein (MCP) were expressed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae surface display technology. The yeast-prepared oral vaccines were named EBY100-OMCP and EBY100-LTB-OMCP. The candidate vaccines could resist the acidic intestinal environment. After 7 days of continuous oral immunization, indicators of innate and adaptive immunity were measured on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. High activities of immune enzymes (T-SOD, AKP, ACP, and LZM) in serum and intestinal mucus were detected. IgM in the head kidney was significantly upregulated (EBY100-OMCP group: 3.8-fold; BY100-LTB-OMCP group: 4.3-fold). IgT was upregulated in the intestines (EBY100-OMCP group: 5.6-fold; EBY100-LTB-OMCP group: 6.7-fold). Serum neutralizing antibody titers of the two groups reached 1:85. Oral vaccination protected against LMBV infection. The relative percent survival was 52.1% (EBY100-OMCP) and 66.7% (EBY100-LTB-OMCP). Thus, EBY100-OMCP and EBY100-LTB-OMCP are promising and effective candidate vaccines against LMBV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Immunology and Vaccination)
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