Open AccessCase Report
The Effectiveness of a Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak Control Programme in Thailand 2008–2015: Case Studies and Lessons Learned
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040101 -
Abstract
Three Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreaks in northern Thailand that occurred during the implementation of the national FMD strategic plan in 2008–2015 are described to illustrate the lessons learned and to improve the prevention and control of future outbreaks. In 2008, during
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Three Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreaks in northern Thailand that occurred during the implementation of the national FMD strategic plan in 2008–2015 are described to illustrate the lessons learned and to improve the prevention and control of future outbreaks. In 2008, during a FMD outbreak on a dairy farm, milk delivery was banned for 30 days. This was a part of movement management, a key strategy for FMD control in dairy farms in the area. In 2009, more than half the animals on a pig farm were affected by FMD. Animal quarantine and restricted animal movement played a key role in preventing the spread of FMD. In 2010, FMD infection was reported in a captive elephant. The suspected source of virus was a FMD-infected cow on the same premises. The infected elephant was moved to an elephant hospital that was located in a different province before the diagnosis was confirmed. FMD education was given to elephant veterinarians to promote FMD prevention and control strategies in this unique species. These three cases illustrate how differences in outbreak circumstances and species require the implementation of a variety of different FMD control and prevention measures. Control measures and responses should be customized in different outbreak situations. Full article
Open AccessReview
Cellular Immunotherapy of Canine Cancer
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040100 -
Abstract
Infusions with immune cells, such as lymphocytes or natural killer (NK) cells, represent one of several modalities of immunotherapy. In human patients with advanced B-cell leukemia or lymphoma, infusions with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-lymphocytes have shown promising responses. However, the scientific and
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Infusions with immune cells, such as lymphocytes or natural killer (NK) cells, represent one of several modalities of immunotherapy. In human patients with advanced B-cell leukemia or lymphoma, infusions with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-lymphocytes have shown promising responses. However, the scientific and clinical development of cell-based therapies for dogs, who get cancer of similar types as humans, is lagging behind. One reason is that immune cells and their functionality in dogs are less well characterized, largely due a lack of canine-specific reagents to detect surface markers, and specific cytokines to isolate and expand their immune cells. This review summarizes the current status of canine cancer immunotherapies, with focus on autologous and allogeneic T-lymphocytes, as well as NK cells, and discusses potential initiatives that would allow therapies with canine immune cells to “catch up” with the advances in humans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Final Year Veterinary Students’ Telephone Communication Skills at a Veterinary Teaching Hospital
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040099 -
Abstract
Client communication is a core clinical skill that is taught as part of the required curriculum at many veterinary colleges. Although much client communication occurs face-to-face, telephone communication is used to provide patient updates, relay results of diagnostic tests, and check on discharged
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Client communication is a core clinical skill that is taught as part of the required curriculum at many veterinary colleges. Although much client communication occurs face-to-face, telephone communication is used to provide patient updates, relay results of diagnostic tests, and check on discharged patients. This research explored fourth year veterinary medical students’ telephone communication skills. We recorded and analyzed the transcripts of 25 calls students made to clients of three different services in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Additionally, we explored the perspectives of veterinary educators by distributing a survey to university faculty and house officers (n = 57). Results indicate that students excelled at identifying the patient and purpose of the call and incorporating professional language and clear explanations. They require development in providing structure and incorporating core communication skills. Compared with our survey results, the student findings are at odds with clinicians’ expectations of students’ communication abilities. We conclude that additional training is required to familiarize students with expectations regarding telephone communication, including reviewing the case thoroughly, preparing to answer questions and provide explanations, following organizational protocol, and incorporating open ended questions, reflective listening, and empathy. This data will inform design, and help to measure the impact, of telephone communication education and training that will be incorporated into the existing veterinary communication curriculum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Characterization of Indubrasil Cattle Breed Population
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040098 -
Abstract
The Indubrasil breed was developed in the Brazilian region called Triângulo Mineiro as a result of a cross between zebu cattle. Initially, it was used as a terminal cross and currently it represents approximately 4.45% of all the Brazilian zebu cattle. Studies were
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The Indubrasil breed was developed in the Brazilian region called Triângulo Mineiro as a result of a cross between zebu cattle. Initially, it was used as a terminal cross and currently it represents approximately 4.45% of all the Brazilian zebu cattle. Studies were conducted to estimate genetic parameters in the Indubrasil using pedigree information, however, until now, no study has been developed using large-scale genomic markers in this breed. Pedigree information are widely used to investigate population parameters; however, they can neglect some estimates when compared to the use of genomic markers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the population structure and the genetic diversity of Indubrasil cattle using a high-density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panel (Illumina BovineHD BeadChip 700k). Levels of genomic homozygosity were evaluated using three different approaches: Runs of homozygosity (FROH), % of homozygosis (FSNP), and inbreeding coefficient (Fx). Further, Runs of Homozygosity (ROH) segments conserved among the animals were investigated to identify possible regions associated with the breed characteristics. Our results indicate that even the Indubrasil breed having a small effective population size, the levels of homozygosity (FROH = 0.046) are still small. This was possibly caused by the cross conducted among different breeds for its development. It suggests no immediate risks associated with loss of genetic variation. This information might be used in breeding programs, for the breed conservation and for the expansion of the Indubrasil breed. Full article
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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Kuribayashi, T. et al. Seroprevalence of Immunoglobulin E Antibodies against Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergens Cry j1 and Cry j2 in Dogs Bred in Japan. Vet. Sci. 2018, 5, 79
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040097 -
Abstract
Due to an error during production, the column title of Figure 2 and Figure 3 are misaligned in the Results section of the published paper [...] Full article
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Open AccessReview
Lower Urinary Tract Neoplasia
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040096 -
Abstract
Lower urinary tract neoplasia in companion animals is a debilitating and often life-threatening disease. Tumors of the bladder, urethra, and prostate often occur independently, although extension of these tumors into adjacent regions of the lower urinary tract is documented frequently. The most common
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Lower urinary tract neoplasia in companion animals is a debilitating and often life-threatening disease. Tumors of the bladder, urethra, and prostate often occur independently, although extension of these tumors into adjacent regions of the lower urinary tract is documented frequently. The most common lower urinary tract tumor in dogs and cats is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). In both dogs and cats, TCC affecting the urinary bladder is generally considered to be highly aggressive with both local and metastatic disease potential, and this disease poses unique treatment challenges. Whereas much literature exists regarding the TCC disease process, treatment options, and prognosis in dogs, relatively few studies on feline TCC have been published due to the lower incidence of TCC in this species. Prostate tumors, most commonly adenocarcinomas, occur less commonly in dogs and cats but serve an important role as a comparative model for prostate neoplasia in humans. This article serves as a review of the current information regarding canine and feline lower urinary tract neoplasia as well as the relevance of these diseases with respect to their human counterparts. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Dimensions of Pet-Owner Loyalty and the Relationship with Communication, Trust, Commitment and Perceived Value
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040095 -
Abstract
Loyalty is one of the greatest intangible assets that any organization can possess and improving client loyalty is a primary marketing goal that can have a significant financial impact on any business. This quantitative study examined the mediating role of communication on the
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Loyalty is one of the greatest intangible assets that any organization can possess and improving client loyalty is a primary marketing goal that can have a significant financial impact on any business. This quantitative study examined the mediating role of communication on the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) in veterinary clinics, along with the moderating roles of trust, commitment, perceived value, and relational characteristics. Responses collected from 351 pet-owners through social media were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that attitudinal loyalty (AL) has a strong positive relationship with communication at multiple points in a veterinary clinic, whereas the relationship with behavioral loyalty (BL) was not as clear. Additional findings suggest that AL, which is influenced by trust in the veterinarian, communication from staff members and commitment, has a strong positive relationship with behavioral intentions, increases the number of products and services that a pet-owner consumes at his or her primary veterinary clinic, and attenuates the role of cost in receiving veterinary care. These findings can help veterinary clinic owners and managers in developing and implementing relationship strategies that improve pet-owner loyalty. Full article
Open AccessReview
Phytochemical Molluscicides and Schistosomiasis: What We Know and What We Still Need to Learn
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040094 -
Abstract
Worldwide schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with approximately 67 million people infected and 200 million at risk of infection from inhabiting or transiting endemically active regions. Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and the Middle East are the main transmission regions of
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Worldwide schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with approximately 67 million people infected and 200 million at risk of infection from inhabiting or transiting endemically active regions. Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and the Middle East are the main transmission regions of Schistosoma mansoni. The fight against transmission through the use of molluscicides is not recent and has been advocated as the only activity with the possibility of interruption of transmission in small, epidemiologically active outbreaks. Euphorbia milii var. hislopii (syn. splendens) (Des Moulins, 1826) is the most promising for use in official schistosomiasis control programs according to the WHO. In this review, we show that an understanding of some how E. milii latex affects the snail vector and their parasites from a molecular level to field conditions is lacking. On the other hand, this type of treatment could also provide a rationale for the control of schistosomiasis and other parasitosis. Several publications contribute to enforcing the use of E. milii latex in endemic countries as a cheap alternative or complement to mass drug treatment with praziquantel, the only available drug to cure the patients (without preventing re-infection). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Competition among Escherichia coli Strains for Space and Resources
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040093 -
Abstract
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a subgroup of E. coli causing human diseases. Methods to control STEC in livestock and humans are limited. These and other emerging pathogens are a global concern and novel mitigation strategies are required. Habitats populated by bacteria
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Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a subgroup of E. coli causing human diseases. Methods to control STEC in livestock and humans are limited. These and other emerging pathogens are a global concern and novel mitigation strategies are required. Habitats populated by bacteria are subjected to competition pressures due to limited space and resources but they use various strategies to compete in natural environments. Our objective was to evaluate non-pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from cattle feces for their ability to out-compete STEC. Competitive fitness of non-pathogenic E. coli against STEC were assessed in competitions using liquid, agar, and nutrient limiting assays. Winners were determined by enumeration using O-serogroup specific quantitative PCR or a semi-quantitative grading. Initial liquid competitions identified two strong non-pathogenic competitors (O103F and O26E) capable of eliminating various STEC including O157 and O111. The strain O103F was dominant across permeable physical barriers for all tested E. coli and STEC strains indicating the diffusion of antimicrobial molecules. In direct contact and even with temporal disadvantages, O103F out-competed STEC O157E. The results suggest that O103F or the diffusible molecule(s) it produces have a potential to be used as an alternative STEC mitigation strategy, either in medicine or the food industry. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Challenges and Opportunities Developing Mathematical Models of Shared Pathogens of Domestic and Wild Animals
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040092 -
Abstract
Diseases that affect both wild and domestic animals can be particularly difficult to prevent, predict, mitigate, and control. Such multi-host diseases can have devastating economic impacts on domestic animal producers and can present significant challenges to wildlife populations, particularly for populations of conservation
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Diseases that affect both wild and domestic animals can be particularly difficult to prevent, predict, mitigate, and control. Such multi-host diseases can have devastating economic impacts on domestic animal producers and can present significant challenges to wildlife populations, particularly for populations of conservation concern. Few mathematical models exist that capture the complexities of these multi-host pathogens, yet the development of such models would allow us to estimate and compare the potential effectiveness of management actions for mitigating or suppressing disease in wildlife and/or livestock host populations. We conducted a workshop in March 2014 to identify the challenges associated with developing models of pathogen transmission across the wildlife-livestock interface. The development of mathematical models of pathogen transmission at this interface is hampered by the difficulties associated with describing the host-pathogen systems, including: (1) the identity of wildlife hosts, their distributions, and movement patterns; (2) the pathogen transmission pathways between wildlife and domestic animals; (3) the effects of the disease and concomitant mitigation efforts on wild and domestic animal populations; and (4) barriers to communication between sectors. To promote the development of mathematical models of transmission at this interface, we recommend further integration of modern quantitative techniques and improvement of communication among wildlife biologists, mathematical modelers, veterinary medicine professionals, producers, and other stakeholders concerned with the consequences of pathogen transmission at this important, yet poorly understood, interface. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Use of Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Heat Ablation for Treatment of Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Eight Dogs: Outcome and Complications
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040091 -
Abstract
Percutaneous ultrasound-guided radiofrequency heat-ablation (UG-RHA) is a therapeutic option for dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPTH) but information about its outcome is still controversial. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the outcome and complications of UG-RHA in dogs with PHPTH. The medical records of
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Percutaneous ultrasound-guided radiofrequency heat-ablation (UG-RHA) is a therapeutic option for dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPTH) but information about its outcome is still controversial. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the outcome and complications of UG-RHA in dogs with PHPTH. The medical records of dogs with PHPTH submitted to UG-RHA between June 2012 and September 2015 in a French referral center were retrospectively reviewed. Eight cases were included. No sex predisposition was found. The median age at diagnosis was 12 years. The most common clinical sign was polyuria/polydipsia. All of the dogs were hypercalcaemic prior to UG-RHA, and all showed a parathyroid nodule identified upon cervical ultrasound. UG-RHA was uneventful, allowing a successful resolution of hypercalcemia in all dogs (8/8). Six out of eight dogs did not receive vitamin D supplementation either pre- or post-procedure. From these, three dogs developed biochemical hypocalcemia, but only one required therapy. Other short-term complications included Horner’s syndrome (1/8) and aspiration bronchopneumonia, which led to cardio-respiratory arrest in one large-breed dog (1/8). Long-term complications were scarce, with no recurrence reported in all of the cases that were assessed in follow-up (4/7). This study demonstrates that UG-RHA has few short or long-term complications, and it is a good therapeutic alternative for dogs with PHPTH. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Peer Feedback on Collaborative Learning Activities in Veterinary Education
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040090 -
Abstract
Collaborative learning activities are an increasingly prominent feature of veterinary curricula that have been redesigned to achieve competency-based graduate learning outcomes. This evolution challenges the traditional individualistic approach to veterinary education and necessitates revisions to assessment and feedback practices to ensure constructive alignment.
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Collaborative learning activities are an increasingly prominent feature of veterinary curricula that have been redesigned to achieve competency-based graduate learning outcomes. This evolution challenges the traditional individualistic approach to veterinary education and necessitates revisions to assessment and feedback practices to ensure constructive alignment. Peer feedback has been widely reported in the medical education literature as a teaching intervention in collaborative learning settings, with learning gains reported for students who receive and provide peer feedback. In this setting, peer feedback has been demonstrated to provide valuable formative feedback on professional behaviors and skills. However, there are very few such reports in the veterinary education literature to date. Barriers to the introduction of this approach can include teacher and student perceptions, and concerns around validity and reliability. This review aimed to provide an overview of current evidence regarding peer feedback on collaborative learning activities in higher education, and to explore opportunities and challenges for the introduction of peer feedback in the context of veterinary education. We contend that early and repeated provision of formative peer feedback can provide an opportunity to scaffold the development of crucial core competencies within veterinary education, including the self-regulated learning skills required to work in collaborative teams, and interpret and act on feedback. Full article
Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Anthelminthic Efficacy of Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) R.Br (Acanthaceae) Extracts on Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040089 -
Abstract
The anthelminthic efficacy of the crude extracts of Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) R.Br (Acanthaceae) against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep was investigated using the in vitro egg hatch inhibition assay. Faecal samples were collected from sheep with naturally occurring infection of GIN (Trichostrongylus
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The anthelminthic efficacy of the crude extracts of Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) R.Br (Acanthaceae) against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep was investigated using the in vitro egg hatch inhibition assay. Faecal samples were collected from sheep with naturally occurring infection of GIN (Trichostrongylus spp., Chabertia ovina, Cooperia spp., Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia spp.). Crude leaf extracts of H. forskaolii was obtained using increasing polarity solvents: n-hexane, chloroform, chloroform:methanol 9:1, methanol. Thiabendazole (0.2 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL) was used as a positive control and untreated GIN eggs in deionised water served as the negative control. All the extracts exhibited a weak ovicidal activity against GIN (less than 50% of egg hatch). Noteworthy, the n-hexane extract showed a percentage of inhibition of egg hatching greater than other extracts inhibiting the 30.8% at the concentration of 1 mg/mL showing a dose-dependent effect on nematode eggs hatching. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of extracts used and to evaluate the ovicidal effects of other extracts of H. forskaolii. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Pathogenicity of Wildlife and Bovine Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains in Experimentally Inoculated Neonatal Jersey Calves
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040088 -
Abstract
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, like E. coli O157:H7, are important human and animal pathogens. Naturally-acquired E. coli O157:H7 infections occur in numerous species but, particularly, cattle have been identified as a significant reservoir for human cases. E. coli O157:H7 are isolated from
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Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, like E. coli O157:H7, are important human and animal pathogens. Naturally-acquired E. coli O157:H7 infections occur in numerous species but, particularly, cattle have been identified as a significant reservoir for human cases. E. coli O157:H7 are isolated from a number of domestic and wild animals, including rodents that share a living space with cattle. These Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 strains can be highly virulent in humans, but little is known about the sequelae of interspecies transfer. In a group of neonatal calves, we determined the differences in colonization patterns and lesions associated with infection using either a wildlife or bovine E. coli O157:H7 strain. In calves challenged with the wildlife E. coli O157:H7 strain, the large (descending) colon was solely colonized, which differed substantially from the calves inoculated with the bovine E. coli O157:H7 strain, where the spiral colon was the principal target of infection. This study also demonstrated that while both interspecies- and intraspecies-derived E. coli O157:H7 can infect young calves, the distribution and severity differs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Safety of an Adjuvanted Autologous Cancer Vaccine Platform in Canine Cancer Patients
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040087 -
Abstract
Canine cancer rates are similar to humans, though the therapeutic options might be limited. Inducing a patient’s own immune system to have an anti-tumor response is an attractive approach to cancer therapy. In this safety study, autologous tumor vaccines produced specifically for each
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Canine cancer rates are similar to humans, though the therapeutic options might be limited. Inducing a patient’s own immune system to have an anti-tumor response is an attractive approach to cancer therapy. In this safety study, autologous tumor vaccines produced specifically for each canine patient were combined with Advax™, a novel non-inflammatory immunomodulator and vaccine adjuvant and were tested for safety in a diverse range of patient presentations alone or in combination with other treatments. Canine patients had their tumor biopsied, debulked or resected and the tumor antigens were processed into an autologous vaccine formulated with Advax™ adjuvant with or without rhizavidin as an additional immune stimulant. Patients treated early in the trial received two intramuscular (IM) doses, 2 weeks apart. As the study progressed and no issues of safety were observed, the protocol was changed to weekly vaccinations for 4 weeks followed by monthly booster shots. Over the 150 I.M injections delivered to date, the vaccine was found to be very safe and no significant adverse reactions were observed. These results justify ongoing development and future controlled studies of this autologous vaccine approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Serological Survey on Swine Brucellosis Using Standard Procedures, Dot Blot, and Western Blot in Finisher Pigs in Central-North Italy
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040086 -
Abstract
In recent years, Brucella suis has been sporadically reported in Italy in domestic and wild swine. Since standard serological tests can determine false positive results, the development of alternative tests with improved sensitivity and specificity is rather essential. We analyzed 1212 sera collected
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In recent years, Brucella suis has been sporadically reported in Italy in domestic and wild swine. Since standard serological tests can determine false positive results, the development of alternative tests with improved sensitivity and specificity is rather essential. We analyzed 1212 sera collected at slaughterhouse from healthy pigs belonging to 62 farms of North-Central Italy. Sera were tested by Rose Bengal Test, Complement Fixation Test, and subsequently by a Dot Blot (DB) and Western Blot assays (WB). Only one serum resulted positive to all tests, indicating that swine brucellosis has a very limited spread. DB and WB could represent a support to the available serological tests; however, further studies to validate these tests are needed. In the presence of reemerging diseases, a prompt and continuous monitoring design is necessary to acquire epidemiological information for the subsequent application of specific health emergency plans. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Report from the ‘One Health’ 9th Tick and Tick-Borne Pathogen Conference and the 1st Asia-Pacific Rickettsia Conference, Cairns, Australia, 27 August–1 September 2017
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040085 -
Abstract
The 9th Tick and Tick-borne Pathogen (TTP9) Conference was held in conjunction with the first Asia Pacific Rickettsia Conference (APRC1) in Cairns, Australia from 27 August until 1 September in 2017. This MDPI Veterinary Sciences Special Issue has been dedicated to selected veterinary
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The 9th Tick and Tick-borne Pathogen (TTP9) Conference was held in conjunction with the first Asia Pacific Rickettsia Conference (APRC1) in Cairns, Australia from 27 August until 1 September in 2017. This MDPI Veterinary Sciences Special Issue has been dedicated to selected veterinary science articles from the conference associated with the control of animal diseases in the context of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, including Rickettsia species. The articles presented in this Special Issue include novel developments for the future control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. This editorial describes the meeting content, the plenaries, the TTP awards, the MDPI Veterinary Science Special Issue articles, and serves as a legacy report for TTP9APRC1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Cross-Sectional Study of Experiences and Attitudes towards Clinical Audit of Farm Animal Veterinary Surgeons in the United Kingdom
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040084 -
Abstract
Clinical audit is a quality improvement tool used to assess and improve the clinical services provided to patients. This is the first study to investigate the extent to which clinical audit is understood and utilised in farm animal veterinary practice. A cross-sectional study
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Clinical audit is a quality improvement tool used to assess and improve the clinical services provided to patients. This is the first study to investigate the extent to which clinical audit is understood and utilised in farm animal veterinary practice. A cross-sectional study to collect experiences and attitudes of farm animal veterinary surgeons in the UK towards clinical audit was conducted using an online nationwide survey. The survey revealed that whilst just under three-quarters (n = 237/325; 73%) of responding veterinary surgeons had heard of clinical audit, nearly 50% (n = 148/301) had never been involved in a clinical audit of any species. The participants’ knowledge of what a clinical audit was varied substantially, with many respondents reporting not receiving training on clinical audit at the undergraduate or postgraduate level. Respondents that had participated in a clinical audit suggested that protected time away from clinical work was required for the process to be completed successfully. This novel study suggests that clinical audit is undertaken to some extent in farm animal practice and that practitioner perception is that it can bring benefits, but was felt that more resources and support were needed for it to be implemented successfully on a wider scale. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dogs (Canis familiaris) as Sentinels for Human Infectious Disease and Application to Canadian Populations: A Systematic Review
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040083 -
Abstract
In a world where climate change, vector expansion, human activity, and pathogen dispersal do not respect boundaries, the human–animal–pathogen interface has become less defined. Consequently, a One Health approach to disease surveillance and control has generated much interest across several disciplines. This systematic
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In a world where climate change, vector expansion, human activity, and pathogen dispersal do not respect boundaries, the human–animal–pathogen interface has become less defined. Consequently, a One Health approach to disease surveillance and control has generated much interest across several disciplines. This systematic review evaluates current global research on the use of domestic dogs as sentinels for human infectious disease, and critically appraises how this may be applied within Canada. Results highlighted a bias in research from high- and middle-income-economy countries, with 35% of the studies describing data from the Latin America/Caribbean region, 25% from North America, and 11% from the European/Central Asia region. Bacteria were the most studied type of infectious agent, followed by protozoa, viruses, helminths, and fungi. Only six out of 142 studies described disease in Canada: four researched a variety of pathogens within Indigenous communities, one researched Borrelia burgdorferi in British Columbia, and one researched arboviruses in Quebec. Results from this review suggest that dogs could provide excellent sentinels for certain infectious-disease pathogens in Canada, yet are currently overlooked. Further research into the use of dog-sentinel surveillance is specifically recommended for California serogroup viruses, Chikungunya virus, West Nile virus, Lyme borreliosis, Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Dirofilaria immitis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Multifaceted Zoonotic Risk of H9N2 Avian Influenza
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040082 -
Abstract
Poultry-adapted H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are commonly found in many countries in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, and although classified as low pathogenic viruses, they are an economically important disease. Besides the importance of the disease in the poultry industry,
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Poultry-adapted H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are commonly found in many countries in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, and although classified as low pathogenic viruses, they are an economically important disease. Besides the importance of the disease in the poultry industry, some H9N2 AIVs are also known to be zoonotic. The disease in humans appears to cause primarily a mild upper respiratory disease, and doesn’t cause or only rarely causes the severe pneumonia often seen with other zoonotic AIVs like H5N1 or H7N9. Serologic studies in humans, particularly in occupationally exposed workers, show a large number of people with antibodies to H9N2, suggesting infection is commonly occurring. Of the four defined H9N2 poultry lineages, only two lineages, the G1 and the Y280 lineages, are associated with human infections. Almost all of the viruses from humans have a leucine at position 226 (H3 numbering) of the hemagglutinin associated with a higher affinity of binding with α2,6 sialic acid, the host cell receptor most commonly found on glycoproteins in the human upper respiratory tract. For unknown reasons there has also been a shift in recent years of poultry viruses in the G1 and Y280 lineages to also having leucine instead of glutamine, the amino acid found in most avian viruses, at position 226. The G1 and Y280 poultry lineages because of their known ability to infect humans, the high prevalence of the virus in poultry in endemic countries, the lack of antibody in most humans, and the shift of poultry viruses to more human-like receptor binding makes these viruses a human pandemic threat. Increased efforts for control of the virus, including through effective vaccine use in poultry, is warranted for both poultry and public health goals. Full article
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