Sensors2014, 14(4), 7013-7025; doi:10.3390/s140407013 (doi registration under processing) - published online 21 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this study, a wavelength shifting fiber that shifts ultra-violet and blue light to green light was employed as a sensor probe of a fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor. In order to characterize Cerenkov radiation generated in the developed wavelength shifting fiber and a plastic optical fiber, spectra and intensities of Cerenkov radiation were measured with a spectrometer. The spectral peaks of light outputs from the wavelength shifting fiber and the plastic optical fiber were measured at wavelengths of 500 and 510 nm, respectively, and the intensity of transmitted light output of the wavelength shifting fiber was 22.2 times higher than that of the plastic optical fiber. Also, electron fluxes and total energy depositions of gamma-ray beams generated from a Co-60 therapy unit were calculated according to water depths using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code. The relationship between the fluxes of electrons over the Cerenkov threshold energy and the energy depositions of gamma-ray beams from the Co-60 unit is a near-identity function. Finally, percentage depth doses for the gamma-ray beams were obtained using the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor, and the results were compared with those obtained by an ionization chamber. The average dose difference between the results of the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor and those of the ionization chamber was about 2.09%.
Sensors2014, 14(4), 6998-7012; doi:10.3390/s140406998 (doi registration under processing) - published online 21 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The Internet of Things is one of the ideas that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. It involves connecting things to the Internet in order to retrieve information from them at any time and from anywhere. In the Internet of Things, sensor networks that exchange information wirelessly via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee or RF are common. In this sense, our paper presents a way in which each classroom control is accessed through Near Field Communication (NFC) and the information is shared via radio frequency. These data are published on the Web and could easily be used for building applications from the data collected. As a result, our application collects information from the classroom to create a control classroom tool that displays access to and the status of all the classrooms graphically and also connects this data with social networks.
Sensors2014, 14(4), 6977-6997; doi:10.3390/s140406977 (doi registration under processing) - published online 21 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In recent years nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors have been increasingly applied to investigate, characterize and monitor objects of cultural heritage interest. NMR is not confined to a few specific applications, but rather its use can be successfully extended to a wide number of different cultural heritage issues. A breakthrough has surely been the recent development of portable NMR sensors which can be applied in situ for non-destructive and non-invasive investigations. In this paper three studies illustrating the potential of NMR sensors in this field of research are reported.
Sensors2014, 14(4), 6965-6976; doi:10.3390/s140406965 (doi registration under processing) - published online 21 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this paper, a low-coherence Fabry-Perot sensor with a spectrally measured signal processing response to the refractive index of liquids is presented. Optical fiber sensors are potentially capable of continuous measuring hematocrit levels in blood. Low-coherence Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors offer a robust solution, where information about the measurand is encoded in the full spectrum of light reflected from the sensing interferometer. The first step in the research on such sensor is the assessment of its performance under favorable conditions, i.e., using blood samples from healthy volunteers tested in vitro. Such an experiment was conducted using a sensor comprising a superluminescent diode source, an optical spectrum analyzer working as the detection setup and a sensing Fabry-Perot interferometer providing high interference contrast. The response of this sensor was recorded for several samples and compared with the reference laboratory method. The coefficient of determination (R2) for a linear relationship between the results given by both methods was 0.978 and the difference between these results was less than 1%. The presented results suggest that further research into the performance of the sensor is merited.
Sensors2014, 14(4), 6952-6964; doi:10.3390/s140406952 (doi registration under processing) - published online 21 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper reviews the applications of micro/nanoparticles in microfluidics device fabrication and analytical processing. In general, researchers have focused on two properties of particles—electric behavior and magnetic behavior. The applications of micro/nanoparticles could be summarized on the chip fabrication level and on the processing level. In the fabrication of microfluidic chips (chip fabrication level), particles are good additives in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to prepare conductive or magnetic composites which have wide applications in sensors, valves and actuators. On the other hand, particles could be manipulated according to their electric and magnetic properties under external electric and magnetic fields when they are travelling in microchannels (processing level). Researchers have made a great progress in preparing modified PDMS and investigating the behaviors of particles in microchannels. This article attempts to present a discussion on the basis of particles applications in microfluidics.
Sensors2014, 14(4), 6938-6951; doi:10.3390/s140406938 (doi registration under processing) - published online 17 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We present a composite vector selection method for an effective electronic nose system that performs well even in noisy environments. Each composite vector generated from a electronic nose data sample is evaluated by computing the discriminant distance. By quantitatively measuring the amount of discriminative information in each composite vector, composite vectors containing informative variables can be distinguished and the final composite features for odor classification are extracted using the selected composite vectors. Using the only informative composite vectors can be also helpful to extract better composite features instead of using all the generated composite vectors. Experimental results with different volatile organic compound data show that the proposed system has good classification performance even in a noisy environment compared to other methods.