Remote Sens.2015, 7(4), 3966-3985; doi:10.3390/rs70403966 (registering DOI) - published 1 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Anomaly detection has received considerable interest for hyperspectral data exploitation due to its high spectral resolution. A well-known algorithm for hyperspectral anomaly detection is the RX detector. A number of variations have been studied since then, including global and local versions for different type of anomalies. Aiming at a real-time requirement for practical applications, this paper extends the concept of global and local anomaly detectors to be real-time detectors. The algorithms exploit the fact that a true real-time detector must produce its output in a causal manner and at the same time as an input comes in. Taking advantage of the Woodbury matrix identity, the global and local real-time detectors can be implemented and processed pixel-by-pixel in real time. Both synthetic and real hyperspectral imagery are conducted to demonstrate their performance.
Remote Sens.2015, 7(4), 3934-3965; doi:10.3390/rs70403934 (registering DOI) - published 1 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The challenge of converting global agricultural food, fiber and energy crop cultivation into an ecologically and economically sustainable production process requires the most efficient agricultural management strategies. Development, control and maintenance of these strategies are highly dependent on temporally and spatially continuous information on crop status at the field scale. This paper introduces the application of a process-based, coupled hydro-agroecological model (PROMET) for the simulation of temporally and spatially dynamic crop growth on agriculturally managed fields. By assimilating optical remote sensing data into the model, the simulation of spatial crop dynamics is improved to a point where site-specific farming measures can be supported. Radiative transfer modeling (SLC) is used to provide maps of leaf area index from Earth Observation (EO). These maps are used in an assimilation scheme that selects closest matches between EO and PROMET ensemble runs. Validation is provided for winter wheat (years 2004, 2010 and 2011). Field samples validate the temporal dynamics of the simulations (avg. R² = 0.93) and > 700 ha of calibrated combine harvester data are used for accuracy assessment of the spatial yield simulations (avg. RMSE = 1.15 t∙ha−1). The study shows that precise simulation of field-scale crop growth and yield is possible, if spatial remotely sensed information is combined with temporal dynamics provided by land surface process models. The presented methodology represents a technical solution to make the best possible use of the growing stream of EO data in the context of sustainable land surface management.
Remote Sens.2015, 7(4), 3907-3933; doi:10.3390/rs70403907 (registering DOI) - published 1 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Taking advantage of multiple new remote sensing data sources, especially from Chinese satellites, the CropWatch system has expanded the scope of its international analyses through the development of new indicators and an upgraded operational methodology. The approach adopts a hierarchical system covering four spatial levels of detail: global, regional, national (thirty-one key countries including China) and “sub-countries” (for the nine largest countries). The thirty-one countries encompass more that 80% of both production and exports of maize, rice, soybean and wheat. The methodology resorts to climatic and remote sensing indicators at different scales. The global patterns of crop environmental growing conditions are first analyzed with indicators for rainfall, temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) as well as potential biomass. At the regional scale, the indicators pay more attention to crops and include Vegetation Health Index (VHI), Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Cropped Arable Land Fraction (CALF) as well as Cropping Intensity (CI). Together, they characterize crop situation, farming intensity and stress. CropWatch carries out detailed crop condition analyses at the national scale with a comprehensive array of variables and indicators. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), cropped areas and crop conditions are integrated to derive food production estimates. For the nine largest countries, CropWatch zooms into the sub-national units to acquire detailed information on crop condition and production by including new indicators (e.g., Crop type proportion). Based on trend analysis, CropWatch also issues crop production supply outlooks, covering both long-term variations and short-term dynamic changes in key food exporters and importers. The hierarchical approach adopted by CropWatch is the basis of the analyses of climatic and crop conditions assessments published in the quarterly “CropWatch bulletin” which provides accurate and timely information essential to food producers, traders and consumers.
Remote Sens.2015, 7(4), 3878-3906; doi:10.3390/rs70403878 (registering DOI) - published 1 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The mission of this study is to compare Net Primary Productivity (NPP) estimates using (i) forest inventory data and (ii) spatio-temporally continuous MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) remote sensing data for Austria. While forest inventories assess the change in forest growth based on repeated individual tree measurements (DBH, height etc.), the MODIS NPP estimates are based on ecophysiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and carbon allocation. We obtained repeated national forest inventory data from Austria, calculated a “ground-based” NPP estimate and compared the results with “space-based” MODIS NPP estimates using different daily climate data. The MODIS NPP estimates using local Austrian climate data exhibited better compliance with the forest inventory driven NPP estimates than the MODIS NPP predictions using global climate data sets. Stand density plays a key role in addressing the differences between MODIS driven NPP estimates versus terrestrial driven inventory NPP estimates. After addressing stand density, both results are comparable across different scales. As forest management changes stand density, these findings suggest that management issues are important in understanding the observed discrepancies between MODIS and terrestrial NPP.
Remote Sens.2015, 7(4), 3863-3877; doi:10.3390/rs70403863 (registering DOI) - published 1 April 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Dry Land Asia is the largest arid and semi-arid region in the northern hemisphere that suffers from land desertification. Over the period 1982–2011, there were both overall improvement and regional degeneration in the vegetation NDVI. We analyze future climate changes in these area using two ensemble-average methods from CMIP5 data. Bayesian Model Averaging shows a better capability to represent the future climate and less uncertainty represented by the 22-model ensemble than does the Simple Model Average. From 2006 to 2100, the average growing season temperature value will increase by 2.9 °C, from 14.4 °C to 17.3 °C under three climate scenarios (RCP 26, RCP 45 and RCP 85). We then conduct multiple regression analysis between climate changes compiled from the Climate Research Unit database and vegetation greenness from the GIMMS NDVI3g dataset. There is a general acceleration in the desertification trend under the RCP 85 scenario in middle and northern part of Middle Asia, northwestern China except Xinjiang and the Mongolian Plateau (except the middle part). The RCP 85 scenario shows a more severe desertification trend than does RCP 26. Desertification in dry land Asia, particularly in the regions highlighted in this study, calls for further investigation into climate change impacts and adaptations.
Remote Sens.2015, 7(4), 3826-3862; doi:10.3390/rs70403826 - published 31 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This article provides an overview of building extraction approaches applied to Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data by examining elements used in original publications, such as data set area, accuracy measures, reference data for accuracy assessment, and the use of auxiliary data. We succinctly analyzed the most cited publication for each year between 1998 and 2014, resulting in 54 ISI-indexed articles and 14 non-ISI indexed publications. Based on this, we position some built-in features of ALS to create a comprehensive picture of the state of the art and the progress through the years. Our analyses revealed trends and remaining challenges that impact the community. The results show remaining deficiencies, such as inconsistent accuracy assessment measures, limitations of independent reference data sources for accuracy assessment, relatively few documented applications of the methods to wide area data sets, and the lack of transferability studies and measures. Finally, we predict some future trends and identify some gaps which existing approaches may not exhaustively cover. Despite these deficiencies, this comprehensive literature analysis demonstrates that ALS data is certainly a valuable source of spatial information for building extraction. When taking into account the short civilian history of ALS one can conclude that ALS has become well established in the scientific community and seems to become indispensable in many application fields.