Polymers2015, 7(8), 1379-1388; doi:10.3390/polym7081379 (registering DOI) - published 29 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Transparent and heat-resistant poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymers were synthesized by bulk polymerizing methyl methacrylate (MMA), isobornyl methacrylate (IBMA), and methacrylamide (MAA) monomers. Copolymerization was performed using a chain transfer agent to investigate the molecular weight changes of these copolymers, which exhibited advantages including a low molecular weight distribution, excellent optical properties, high transparency, high glass transition temperature, low moisture absorption, and pellets that can be readily mass produced by using extrusion or jet injection for packing light-emitting diode materials.
Abstract: In this review, we describe the latest advances in synthesis, characterization, and applications of polymer brushes. Synthetic advances towards well-defined polymer brushes, which meet criteria such as: (i) Efficient and fast grafting, (ii) Applicability on a wide range of substrates; and (iii) Precise control of surface initiator concentration and hence, chain density are discussed. On the characterization end advances in methods for the determination of relevant physical parameters such as surface initiator concentration and grafting density are discussed. The impact of these advances specifically in emerging fields of nano- and bio-technology where interfacial properties such as surface energies are controlled to create nanopatterned polymer brushes and their implications in mediating with biological systems is discussed.
Abstract: In the present paper, a series of totally novel bio-nanocomposite films from cellulose laurate (CL) and starch nanocrystals acetate (SNA) were fabricated, and the properties of nanocomposite films were investigated in detail. SNA was obtained by modifying starch nanocrystals (SNs) produced by sulfuric acid hydrolysis of corn starch with acetic anhydride. The favorable dispersity of SNA in chloroform made it ready to convert into nanocomposite films with CL via casting/evaporation method. The transmittance, thermal behavior, mechanical properties, barrier properties and hydrophobicity of CL/SNA nanocomposite films were investigated with UV-vis spectrophotometer, simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA), universal tensile tester/dynamic thermomechanical analysis (DMA), water vapor permeation meter/oxygen permeability tester, and contact angle tester, respectively. The transmittance of nanocomposite films decreased with the increase of SNA content. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that the introduction of SNA into CL matrix did not severely decrease the thermal behavior of CL/SNA nanocomposites. Moreover, non-linear and linear mechanical analysis reflected the enhancement of SNA. At lower contents of SNA (<5.0 wt%), the values of Young’s modulus, tensile strength and the elongation at break of nanocomposite films were comparable with those of neat CL. However, with the increase of SNA, the Young’s modulus and tensile strength were improved significantly and were accompanied by the decreased elongation at break. The water vapor permeability (WVP) and oxygen permeability (PO2) of CL/SNA nanocomposite films were significantly improved by the addition of SNA.
Abstract: This paper presents the influence of silica sand, local crushed sand and different supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) to Portland cement (C) ratio (SCM/C) on the flexural fatigue performance of engineered cementitious composites (ECCs). ECC is a micromechanically-based designed high-performance polymer fiber reinforced concrete with high ductility which exhibits strain-hardening and micro-cracking behavior in tension and flexure. The relative high cost remains an obstacle for wider commercial use of ECC. The replacement of cement by SCMs, and the use of local sand aggregates can lower cost and enhance greenness of the ECC. The main variables of this study were: type and size of aggregates (local crushed or standard silica sand), type of SCMs (fly ash “FA” or slag), SCM/cement ratio of 1.2 or 2.2, three fatigue stress levels and number of fatigue cycles up to 1 million. The study showed that ECC mixtures produced with crushed sand (with high volume of fly ash and slag) exhibited strain hardening behavior (under static loading) with deformation capacities comparable with those made with silica sand. Class F-fly ash combined with crushed sand was the best choice (compared to class CI fly ash and slag) in order to enhance the ECC ductility with slag–ECC mixtures producing lowest deflection capacity. FA–ECC mixtures with silica sand developed more damage under fatigue loading due to higher deflection evolution than FA–ECC mixtures with crushed sand.
Abstract: The frictional drag in turbulent flow can be drastically reduced by the addition of minute amounts of suitable linear flexible high-molecular-weight polymers, and the various physical characteristics of the polymers used are known to be closely related to the drag reduction efficiency. This feature article briefly reviews polymer additives and factors in the system affecting turbulent drag reduction in external flow, more specifically in a rotating disk flow.
Abstract: Insulin-containing microcapsules were prepared by a layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and polyanions, such as poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS), poly(vinyl sulfate) (PVS), and dextran sulfate (DS) on insulin-containing calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles. The CaCO3 core was dissolved in diluted HCl solution to obtain insulin-containing hollow microcapsules. The microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) images and ζ-potential. The release of insulin from the microcapsules was faster at pH 9.0 and 7.4 than in acidic solutions due to the different charge density of PAH. In addition, insulin release was suppressed when the microcapsules were constructed using PAH with a lower molecular weight, probably owing to a thicker shell of the microcapsules. The results suggested a potential use of the insulin-containing microcapsules for developing insulin delivery systems.