Molecules2015, 20(4), 5625-5637; doi:10.3390/molecules20045625 (registering DOI) - published 30 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this study a series of diacylhydrazine and acylhydrazone derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the method of active group combination and the principles of aromatic group bioisosterism. The structures of the novel derivatives were determined on the basis on 1H-NMR, IR and ESI-MS spectral data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their in vivo insecticidal activity against the third instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hiibner, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner, Plutella xyllostella Linnaeus and Pieris rapae Linne, respectively, at a concentration of 10 mg/L. The results showed that all of the derivatives displayed high insecticidal activity. Most of the compounds presented higher insecticidal activity against S. exigua than the reference compounds tebufenozide, metaflumizone and tolfenpyrad, and approximately identical insecticidal activity against H. armigera, P. xyllostella and P. rapae as the references metaflumizone and tolfenpyrad.
Molecules2015, 20(4), 5616-5624; doi:10.3390/molecules20045616 (registering DOI) - published 30 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Two new flavonolignan glycosides, tricin-4'-O-(threo-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7''-O-β-D-glucopyranose (4) and tricin-4'-O-(erythro-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7''-O-β-D-glucopyranose (5) were isolated from the roots of Zizania latifolia, together with tricin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranose (1), tricin-4'-O-(threo-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7-O-β-D-glucopyranose (2), and tricin-4'-O-(erythro-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7-O-β-D-glucopyranose (3). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic techniques, including HR-ESI/MS, 1D-NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT), 2D-NMR (gCOSY, gHSQC, gHMBC), and IR spectroscopy.
Molecules2015, 20(4), 5574-5615; doi:10.3390/molecules20045574 (registering DOI) - published 30 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Photo-excitation of certain semiconductors can lead to the production of reactive oxygen species that can inactivate microorganisms. The mechanisms involved are reviewed, along with two important applications. The first is the use of photocatalysis to enhance the solar disinfection of water. It is estimated that 750 million people do not have accessed to an improved source for drinking and many more rely on sources that are not safe. If one can utilize photocatalysis to enhance the solar disinfection of water and provide an inexpensive, simple method of water disinfection, then it could help reduce the risk of waterborne disease. The second application is the use of photocatalytic coatings to combat healthcare associated infections. Two challenges are considered, i.e., the use of photocatalytic coatings to give “self-disinfecting” surfaces to reduce the risk of transmission of infection via environmental surfaces, and the use of photocatalytic coatings for the decontamination and disinfection of medical devices. In the final section, the development of novel photocatalytic materials for use in disinfection applications is reviewed, taking account of materials, developed for other photocatalytic applications, but which may be transferable for disinfection purposes.
Molecules2015, 20(4), 5566-5573; doi:10.3390/molecules20045566 (registering DOI) - published 30 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The absolute configuration of salicortin, HCH-salicortin and tremulacin, isolated from leaves of Populus trichocarpa × deltoides Beaupré, was determined by comparing spectroscopic data of these compounds with those of idescarpin, isolated from leaves of Idesia polycarpa. All compounds were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. It was found that the hydroxy cyclohexenonoyl (HCH) moiety in all compounds is (S)-configured. In addition, it was shown that leaves of Idesia polycarpa contain high amounts of (−)-idescarpin (1.1%, based on dry weight).
Abstract: meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and its two substituted derivatives (meso-tetrakis(4-cyanophenyl)porphyrin [TPP(CN)4] and meso-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin [TPP(OMe)4]) were synthesized. Their nonlinear absorption and refraction properties were studied using the Z-scan technique in the picosecond (ps) and nanosecond (ns) regimes. The open aperture Z-scan results reveal that TPP and TPP(CN)4 display an identical reverse saturable absorption (RSA) character in the ps and ns regimes. While TPP(OMe)4 exhibits a transition from saturable absorption (SA) to RSA in the ps regime and a typical RSA character in the ns regime. The closed aperture Z-scan results show that TPP(CN)4 and TPP(OMe)4 have regular enhancement of the magnitude of nonlinear refraction as compared to their parent TPP in both the ps and ns regimes. In addition, the second-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities (γ) of these three porphyrins are calculated, and the γ values of TPP(CN)4 and TPP(OMe)4 are remarkable larger than that of TPP. The introduction of the electron-withdrawing group CN and the electron-donating group OMe into TPP has enhanced its nonlinear refraction and γ value, and tuned its nonlinear absorption (TPP(OMe)4), which could be useful for porphyrin-related applications based on the desired NLO properties.
Abstract: Tetrazoles represent a class of five-membered heterocyclic compounds with polynitrogen electron-rich planar structural features. This special structure makes tetrazole derivatives useful drugs, explosives, and other functional materials with a wide range of applications in many fields of medicine, agriculture, material science, etc. Based on our research works on azoles and other references in recent years, this review covers reported work on the synthesis and biological activities of tetrazole derivatives.