Abstract: Five new alkaloids, daphnicyclidins M and N (compounds 1 and 2) and calyciphyllines Q–S (compounds 3–5), along with four known ones, paxiphylline C (6), macropodumine B (7), macropodumine C (8) and daphnicyclidin A (9) were isolated from the stem bark of Daphniphyllum macropodum. Calyciphylline Q (3) is the first calyciphylline A derivative possessing a double bond between C-18 and C-19. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 1, 2, 8 and 9 exhibited cytotoxic activity against P-388 cells with IC50 values of 5.7, 6.5, 10.3 and 13.8 µM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 also showed cytotoxic activity against SGC-7901 cells with IC50 values of 22.4 and 25.6 µM.
Abstract: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide and numerous ongoing research efforts are directed to identify new strategies for its early detection. The development of non-invasive blood-based biomarkers for cancer detection in its preclinical phases is crucial to improve the outcome of this deadly disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new promising class of circulating biomarkers for cancer detection and prognosis definition, but lack of consensus on data normalization methods for circulating miRNAs and the critical issue of haemolysis, has affected the identification of circulating miRNAs with diagnostic potential. We describe here an interesting approach for profiling circulating miRNAs in plasma samples based on the evaluation of reciprocal miRNA levels measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR. By monitoring changes of plasma miRNA-ratios, it is possible to assess the deregulation of tumor-related miRNAs and identify signatures with diagnostic and prognostic value. In addition, to avoid bias due to the release of miRNAs from blood cells, a miRNA-ratios signature distinguishing haemolyzed samples was identified. The method described was validated in plasma samples of lung cancer patients, but given its reproducibility and reliability, could be potentially applied for the identification of diagnostic circulating miRNAs in other diseases.
Abstract: Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)seeds are widely used for oil extraction and the cold-pressed flaxseed (or linseed) cakes obtained during this process constitute a valuable by-product. The flavonol herbacetin diglucoside (HDG) has been previously reported as a constituent of the flaxseed lignan macromolecule linked through ester bonds to the linker molecule hydroxymethylglutaric acid. In this context, the development and validation of a new approach using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of HDG from flaxseed cakes followed by quantification with a reverse-phase HPLC system with UV detection was purposed. The experimental parameters affecting the HDG extraction yield, such as microwave power, extraction time and sodium hydroxide concentration, from the lignan macromolecule were optimized. A maximum HDG concentration of 5.76 mg/g DW in flaxseed cakes was measured following an irradiation time of 6 min, for a microwave power of 150 W using a direct extraction in 0.1 M NaOH in 70% (v/v) aqueous methanol. The optimized method was proven to be rapid and reliable in terms of precision, repeatability, stability and accuracy for the extraction of HDG. Comparison with a conventional extraction method demonstrated that MAE is more effective and less time-consuming.
Abstract: Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been used as a tonic to enhance bodily functions against various ailments for hundreds of years in Far Eastern countries without apparent adverse effects. Ginsenoside Rb1, one of the most active ingredients of ginseng, has been shown to possess various pharmacological activities. Here we report that Rb1 exhibits potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative injury induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay demonstrated that incubation with 300 µm t-BHP for 2.5 h led to a significant cell loss of cultured rat embryonic cortex-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and the cell viability was pronouncedly increased by 24 h pretreatment of 10 µm Rb1. TUNEL staining further confirmed that pretreatment of Rb1 significantly reduced the cell apoptosis in t-BHP-induced oxidative injury. Real time PCR revealed that pretreatment with Rb1 activated Nrf2 pathway in cultured NPCs and led to an elevated expression of HO-1. The results of the present study demonstrate that Rb1 shows a potent anti-oxidative effect on cultured NPCs by activating Nrf2 pathway.
Abstract: Two new limonoids, namely 14,15-didehydroruageanin A (1) and 3-O-methyl- butyrylseneganolide A (2), were isolated from the fruits of Khaya ivorensis along with six known limonoids: seneganolide A (3), 1,3-dideacetylkhivorin (4), 7-deacetylkhivorin (5), 3-deacetylkhivorin (6), 1-deacetylkhivorin (7), and 3-deacetyl-7-oxokhivorin (8). All the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five tumor cell lines.
Abstract: New 1,2,4-triazole colorants were obtained, in high yields, by coupling 3-ethylthio-5-cyanomethyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole (1) with diazotized aniline derivatives 2, 4 and 6. The azo dyes prepared in this work may exist in three tautomeric forms. We found that the tautomerism is influenced mainly by the nature of substituent at the para position of the aniline coupling component. This tautomerisation was observed in the NMR spectra of the dyes. The dyes were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS spectroscopic techniques.