Abstract: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes febrile chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in humans. This disease is debilitating and characterized by acute fever onset and chronic incapacitating polyarthralgia. CHIKF pathogenesis remains poorly defined with no approved vaccines and therapies. Recent outbreaks in the Caribbean islands have elevated concerns over the possibility of a global pandemic. Tremendous efforts have been made to develop relevant mouse models to enable the study of infection and immunity against this viral disease. Among them, the more common C57BL/6 mouse model demonstrated the ability to recapitulate the symptoms shown in infected humans, including self-limiting arthritis, myositis, and tenosynovitis. This has facilitated the unraveling of some key factors involved in disease pathogenesis of CHIKF. However, the stark differences in immune response between humans and mouse models necessitate the development of an animal model with an immune system that is more genetically similar to the human system for a better representation. In this paper, we aim to uncover the limitations of the C57BL/6 model and discuss alternative mouse models for CHIKV research.
Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this work was to compare the efficacy of Maitland mobilization and conventional physical therapy on pain response, range of motion (ROM) and functional ability in patients with chronic low back pain due to lumbar spondylosis. Methods: A total sample of 30 subjects (40–70 years of age) with complaints of slow insidious onset of low back pain (LBP), with or without radiation not less than three months duration and decrease ROM were randomly assigned to: group-I, Maitland mobilization and lumbar stabilization exercises; group-II conventional physical therapy (traction, strengthening, stretching exercises.) and outcomes were assessed for dependent variables. Results: There is statically a significant difference between pre and post measurement readings with time (p = 0.00) and between groups (p < 0.05) with respect to pain and function, but, with respect to ROM readings, showed statistical significance with time (p = 0.00) and no significance between groups (p > 0.05), indicating manual therapy group-I is improving faster and better than conventional physical therapy group-II. Conclusion: Our results showed that manual therapy interventions are more effective in managing low back pain, and function and range of motion of the lumbar spine than conventional physical therapy treatment.
Abstract: Adipose tissue dysfunction constitutes a primary defect in obesity and might link this disease to severe chronic health problems. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of three extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) as well as their effects on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes concerning intracellular lipid accumulation and cytotoxicity, this would give indications regarding therapeutic interest of dandelion as potential anti-obesity candidate. Antioxidant activities of extracts from dandelion roots and leaves were evaluated in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhyorazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) methods at the concentration range used in cellular assays (300–600 µg/mL). The influence of the extracts on mature 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Lipid content was determined by Oil-red-O staining. The extracts showed effective antioxidant activity correlating with total flavonoid and polyphenol contents. However, the functionality level was weakly associated with the antioxidant activity. Further, our data demonstrated that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced in size and number when incubated with the extracts, which suggests a significant increase in lipolysis activity. Particularly, leaf extract and crude powdered root of dandelion reduced triglyceride accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes to a greater extent that the extract from the root. Our study shows anti-lipogenic effects of dandelion extracts on adipocytes as well as radical scavenging and reducing activity. Importantly, along with previous results indicating that cell populations cultivated in the presence of the dandelion extracts decrease in 3T3-L1 adipogenesis capacity, these results suggests that these extracts might represent a treatment option for obesity-related diseases by affecting different processes during the adipocyte life cycle.
Abstract: Human organ functions are regulated by the nervous system. When human cells receive a message, this message is transmitted to the nervous system through a series of signal transmission processes. Skin conditions that occur after applying skin cream are closely related to signal transmission and nervous regulation. We determined the connection between signal regulation and natural rhythmic operations. The diurnal variations resulting from the earth’s rotation and indicate the relative relationships between the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nerve system. A spectrum was developed to assess neural transmission conditions by using skin signals which from Fourier transformation of the waves and established the association between the spectrum and diseases. The results could explain the relationships between the neurological illnesses and established spectrum. The objective was to promote the use of this spectrum as a new tool for conducting the nervous system tests in the future.
Abstract: Cellular innate immune system recognizing pathogen infection is critical for the host defense against viruses. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus with a unique life cycle whereby the DNA and RNA intermediates present at different phases. However, it is still unclear whether the viral DNA or RNA templates are recognized by the pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) to trigger host antiviral immune response. Here in this article, we review the recent advances in the progress of the HBV studies, focusing on the nucleic acid sensors and the pathways involved in the recognition of HBV in the liver–specific in vivo transfection mouse models. Hydrodynamic injection transfecting the hepatocytes in the gene-disrupted mouse model with the HBV replicative genome DNA has revealed that IFNAR and IRF3/7 are indispensable in HBV eradication in the mice liver but not the RNA sensing pathways. Interestingly, accumulating evidence of the recent studies has demonstrated that HBV markedly interfered with IFN-β induction and antiviral immunity mediated by the Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), which has been identified as a central factor in foreign DNA recognition and antiviral innate immunity. This review will present the current understanding of innate immunity in HBV infection and of the challenges for clearing of the HBV infection.
Abstract: The composition and physicochemical properties of honey are variable depending on its floral source and often named according to the geographical location. The potential medicinal benefits of Tualang honey, a multifloral jungle honey found in Malaysia, have recently been attracting attention because of its reported beneficial effects in various diseases. This paper reviews the effects of honey, particularly Tualang honey, on learning and memory. Information regarding the effects of Tualang honey on learning and memory in human as well as animal models is gleaned to hypothesize its underlying mechanisms. These studies show that Tualang honey improves morphology of memory-related brain areas, reduces brain oxidative stress, increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and acetylcholine(ACh) concentrations, and reduces acetylcholinesterase(AChE) in the brain homogenates. Its anti-inflammatory roles in reducing inflammatory trigger and microglial activation have yet to be investigated. It is hypothesized that the improvement in learning and memory following Tualang honey supplementation is due to the significant improvement in brain morphology and enhancement of brain cholinergic system secondary to reduction in brain oxidative damage and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration. Further studies are imperative to elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions.