Abstract: Cellular innate immune system recognizing pathogen infection is critical for the host defense against viruses. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus with a unique life cycle whereby the DNA and RNA intermediates present at different phases. However, it is still unclear whether the viral DNA or RNA templates are recognized by the pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) to trigger host antiviral immune response. Here in this article, we review the recent advances in the progress of the HBV studies, focusing on the nucleic acid sensors and the pathways involved in the recognition of HBV in the liver–specific in vivo transfection mouse models. Hydrodynamic injection transfecting the hepatocytes in the gene-disrupted mouse model with the HBV replicative genome DNA has revealed that IFNAR and IRF3/7 are indispensable in HBV eradication in the mice liver but not the RNA sensing pathways. Interestingly, accumulating evidence of the recent studies has demonstrated that HBV markedly interfered with IFN-β induction and antiviral immunity mediated by the Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), which has been identified as a central factor in foreign DNA recognition and antiviral innate immunity. This review will present the current understanding of innate immunity in HBV infection and of the challenges for clearing of the HBV infection.
Abstract: The composition and physicochemical properties of honey are variable depending on its floral source and often named according to the geographical location. The potential medicinal benefits of Tualang honey, a multifloral jungle honey found in Malaysia, have recently been attracting attention because of its reported beneficial effects in various diseases. This paper reviews the effects of honey, particularly Tualang honey, on learning and memory. Information regarding the effects of Tualang honey on learning and memory in human as well as animal models is gleaned to hypothesize its underlying mechanisms. These studies show that Tualang honey improves morphology of memory-related brain areas, reduces brain oxidative stress, increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and acetylcholine(ACh) concentrations, and reduces acetylcholinesterase(AChE) in the brain homogenates. Its anti-inflammatory roles in reducing inflammatory trigger and microglial activation have yet to be investigated. It is hypothesized that the improvement in learning and memory following Tualang honey supplementation is due to the significant improvement in brain morphology and enhancement of brain cholinergic system secondary to reduction in brain oxidative damage and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration. Further studies are imperative to elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions.
Abstract: From time to time, it is useful to reassess a journal’s purpose, and position it in a way that it can make a significant and unique contribution to the scientific literature. I have recently completed the task of adjusting the scope of Medical Sciences (ISSN 2076-3271; http://www.mdpi.com/journal/medsci), and I believe it is now in an even better position to publish significant work that will be of use and interest to scholars and clinicians within the medical science field.[...]
Abstract: Day and night are regular occurrences in nature, and the organs and tissues in living bodies follow this cycle. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) at various time points regulates organ excitation to maintain healthy functions in the living body. The energy required from basal metabolism can be used to explain living organisms according to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) concept of relationships between meridian directions and organs at various times (organs “at rest” and organs “in operation”). By monitoring skin reactions after applying a cream, we speculated regular blood flow changes, and established an animated hourglass-shaped trajectory diagram to visualize these changes. A combination of TCM and physiological perspectives were considered to explain how the cardiovascular system produces energy. These two perspectives were applied to interpret the correlation between the SNS and organ metabolism.
Abstract: Rutin is the bioactive flavanoid isolated from the straw part of Triticum aestivum and possess various pharmacological applications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of rutin in an experimental skin carcinogenesis mice model system. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a) anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of rutin, it was orally administered at a concentration of (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) continued three times weekly for 16th weeks. The development of skin carcinogenesis was assessed by histopathological analysis. Reductions in tumor size and cumulative number of papillomas were seen due to rutin treatment. Average latent period was significantly increased as compared to carcinogen treated control. Rutin produced significant decrease in the activity of serum enzyme serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin when compared with the control. They significantly increased the levels of enzyme involved in oxidative stress glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The elevated level of lipid peroxidase in the control group was significantly inhibited by rutin administration. The results from the present study suggest the chemopreventive effect of rutin in DMBA and croton oil induced skin carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice and one of the probable reasons would be its antioxidant potential.
Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is chronic inflammatory epidemic state contributing to total and cardiovascular mortality. The current study planned to assess and screen risk factors for MetS and its components. A cross-sectional study conducted to assess age, gender, social status, employment, education, family history, physical activity, dietary habits, alcohol, sleep, body mass index and stress as determinants of MetS. The results were analyzed by Chi Square test with statistical significance of p value <0.05. The frequency of MetS was 17.38% as per modified National Cholesterol Education Program–Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Females (57.38%), age >50 years (86.90%; p < 0.05), middle socioeconomic status (70.50%), illiteracy (39.35%), and unemployment (81.97%; p < 0.05) were found contributing though to different extents. Subjects with a sedentary lifestyle (72.14%), positive family history (42.63%), omnivore diet (47.55%), stress (78.69%; p < 0.05), insomnia (29.51%) and increased BMI (83.62%; p < 0.001) had shown predisposition to MetS. However, the protective role of alcohol (38.28%), an active lifestyle (36.21%), vegetarian diet (62.07%) and adequate sleep (73.11%) was observed. A significant hypertension (98.37%; p < 0.001), dyslipidemia (77.05%; p < 0.001), dysglycemia (75.41%; p < 0.001) and obesity (59.02%; p < 0.001) was reported in MetS. Common concerns of female gender, increasing age and BMI, sedentary lifestyle, stress and positive family history should be considered for early identification and appropriate intervention to fight the growing MetS epidemic.