Materials2015, 8(8), 4895-4911; doi:10.3390/ma8084895 (registering DOI) - published 31 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) demonstrates chemical stability and biocompatibility and is widely used in biomedical applications. The porous bamboo charcoal has excellent toxin absorptivity and has been used in blood purification. In this study, bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (BCNPs) were acquired with nano-grinding technology. The PVA and PVA/BCNP nanocomposite membranes were prepared and characterized by the tensile test, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation of the swollen PVA membranes containing 1% BCNPs (PB1) were significantly greater than those of PVA and other PVA/BCNP composite membranes. In addition, the major absorption band of OH stretching in the IR spectra shifted from 3262 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 1% BCNP to 3244 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 20% BCNP. This blue shift might be attributed to the interaction between the PVA molecules and BCNPs. Moreover, the intensity of the XRD peaks in PVA was decreased with the increased BCNP content. The bioactivity of the nanocomposites was evaluated by immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for seven days. The mineral deposition on PB5 was significantly more than that on the other samples. The mineral was identified as hydroxyapatite (HA) by XRD. These data suggest that the bioactivity of the composite hydrogel membranes was associated with the surface distribution of hydrophilic/hydrophobic components. The PVA/BCNP composite hydrogels may have potential applications in alveolar bone regeneration.
Materials2015, 8(8), 4884-4894; doi:10.3390/ma8084884 (registering DOI) - published 30 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite (UDPHAp) is an artificial bone substitute with a unique microstructure consisting of 100–300-µm oval pores that present the material unidirectionally. UDPHAp has a compression strength of 14 MPa and a porosity of 75%, which promotes cell migration and capillary formation within the material. Despite these advantageous properties, bone remodeling and bone formation with UDPHAp remain unclear. To examine long-term remodeling and differences in bone formation based on the defect site, trapezoidal prism-shaped UDPHAp blocks were implanted into rectangular-shaped cortical bone defects in the proximal tibia of Japanese white rabbits. Histological analysis performed at 52 and 104 weeks after implantation revealed that bone and capillaries had formed within the implanted UDPHAp material. Bone formed within the UDPHAp implanted in the cortical defect of rabbit tibia and remodel up to two years. The percentage of new bone area within UDPHAp was larger in cortical lesions than that in medullary lesions. These findings suggest that UDPHAp is a promising material for the repair of non-critical-sized cortical bone defects.
Materials2015, 8(8), 4876-4883; doi:10.3390/ma8084876 (registering DOI) - published 30 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this study we report antibacterial modification of Kirschner wires (K-wires) with polyluteolin (PL) toward methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). K-wires were modified by immersing them in the luteolin-containing aqueous solution for 24 h. Characterizations using scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods confirmed the presence of the PL coatings on the K-wires. The PL-coated K-wires were further found to show antibacterial activity toward MRSA and remained unimpaired antibacterial activity even after the steam sterilization treatment.
Materials2015, 8(8), 4857-4875; doi:10.3390/ma8084857 (registering DOI) - published 30 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Slags are the final solid wastes from the steel industry. Their production from waste and associated materials is a proper implementation of the basic objectives and principles of the waste management. This study aims to investigate the chemical and selected significant geotechnical parameters of steel slag as the alternative materials used in road construction. These investigations are strongly desired for successful application in engineering. Young’s modules E, and resilient modules Mr showed that their values corresponding with requirements for subbase (principal or auxiliary) and riding surface as well. Tested mechanical properties were conducted in soaked and un-soaked (optimal moisture content) conditions. The designated high content of chromium and zinc are strongly associated with the internal crystal structure of steel slag. The results do not lead to threats when they are applied in roads’ structures. Mechanical characterization was obtained by performing California bearing ratio (CBR) tests for steel slag in fixed compaction and moisture content conditions. Moreover, cyclic loading of steel slag was conducted with the application of cyclic California bearing ratio (cCBR) apparatus to characterization of this material as a controlled low-strength material. Finally, field studies that consist of static load plate VSS tests were presented.
Materials2015, 8(8), 4843-4856; doi:10.3390/ma8084843 (registering DOI) - published 30 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Background: Bone augmentation is a subject of intensive investigation in regenerative bone medicine and constitutes a clinical situation in which autogenous bone grafts or synthetic materials are used to aid new bone formation. Method: Based on a non-critical defect, Co-Cr barrier membranes were placed on six adult Fauve de Bourgogne rabbits, divided into two groups: whole blood and PRP. Three densitometric controls were performed during the experiment. The animals were euthanized at 30, 45, 60, and 110 days. The presence of newly formed bone was observed. Samples for histological studies were taken from the augmentation center. Results: External and internal bone tissue augmentation was observed in almost all cases. Significant differences between PRP- and whole blood–stimulated bone augmentation were not observed. At 60 days, bones with PRP presented higher angiogenesis, which may indicate more proliferation and cellular activity. Conclusion: PRP activates the bone regeneration process under optimized conditions by stimulation of osteoblast proliferation after six weeks, when a significant difference in cellular activity was observed. Membranes could stimulate bone augmentation at the site of placement and in the surrounding areas.
Materials2015, 8(8), 4829-4842; doi:10.3390/ma8084829 - published 29 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A powerful characterization technique, pulse capacitance-voltage (CV) technique, was used to investigate oxide traps before and after annealing for lanthanide zirconium oxide thin films deposited on n-type Si (111) substrates at 300 °C by liquid injection Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). The results indicated that: (1) more traps were observed compared to the conventional capacitance-voltage characterization method in LaZrOx; (2) the time-dependent trapping/de-trapping was influenced by the edge time, width and peak-to-peak voltage of a gate voltage pulse. Post deposition annealing was performed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C in N2 ambient for 15 s to the samples with 200 ALD cycles. The effect of the high temperature annealing on oxide traps and leakage current were subsequently explored. It showed that more traps were generated after annealing with the trap density increasing from 1.41 × 1012 cm−2 for as-deposited sample to 4.55 × 1012 cm−2 for the 800 °C annealed one. In addition, the leakage current density increase from about 10−6 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the as-deposited sample to 10−3 A/cm2 at Vg = +0.5 V for the 900 °C annealed one.