Materials2015, 8(5), 2830-2848; doi:10.3390/ma8052830 (registering DOI) - published 22 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In the present study, the dissolution and precipitation behaviour of four different aluminium alloys (EN AW-6005A, EN AW-6082, EN AW-6016, and EN AW-6181) in four different initial heat treatment conditions (T4, T6, overaged, and soft annealed) was investigated during heating in a wide dynamic range. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to record heating curves between 20 and 600 °C. Heating rates were studied from 0.01 K/s to 5 K/s. We paid particular attention to control baseline stability, generating flat baselines and allowing accurate quantitative evaluation of the resulting DSC curves. As the heating rate increases, the individual dissolution and precipitation reactions shift to higher temperatures. The reactions during heating are significantly superimposed and partially run simultaneously. In addition, precipitation and dissolution reactions are increasingly suppressed as the heating rate increases, whereby exothermic precipitation reactions are suppressed earlier than endothermic dissolution reactions. Integrating the heating curves allowed the enthalpy levels of the different initial microstructural conditions to be quantified. Referring to time–temperature–austenitisation diagrams for steels, continuous heating dissolution diagrams for aluminium alloys were constructed to summarise the results in graphical form. These diagrams may support process optimisation in heat treatment shops.
Materials2015, 8(5), 2809-2829; doi:10.3390/ma8052809 (registering DOI) - published 22 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that play important functions in the regulation of many biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. Since their expression has been in close association with the development of many diseases, recently, miRNAs have been regarded as clinically important biomarkers and drug discovery targets. However, because of the short length, high sequence similarity and low abundance of miRNAs in vivo, it is difficult to realize the sensitive and selective detection of miRNAs with conventional methods. In line with the rapid development of nanotechnology, nanomaterials have attracted great attention and have been intensively studied in biological analysis due to their unique chemical, physical and size properties. In particular, fluorimetric methodologies in combination with nanotechnology are especially rapid, sensitive and efficient. The aim of this review is to provide insight into nanomaterials-based fluorimetric methods for the detection of miRNAs, including metal nanomaterials, quantum dots (QDs), graphene oxide (GO) and silicon nanoparticles.
Materials2015, 8(5), 2794-2808; doi:10.3390/ma8052794 (registering DOI) - published 22 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study aims to compare the mechanical behavior of synthetic meshes used for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and hernia repair. The analysis is based on a comprehensive experimental protocol, which included uniaxial and biaxial tension, cyclic loading and testing of meshes in dry conditions and embedded into an elastomer matrix. Implants are grouped as POP or hernia meshes, as indicated by the manufacturer, and their stiffness in different loading configurations, area density and porosity are compared. Hernia meshes might be expected to be stiffer, since they are implanted into a stiffer tissue (abdominal wall) than POP meshes (vaginal wall). Contrary to this, hernia meshes have a generally lower secant stiffness than POP meshes. For example, DynaMesh PRS, a POP mesh, is up to two orders of magnitude stiffer in all tested configurations than DynaMesh ENDOLAP, a hernia mesh. Additionally, lighter, large pore implants might be expected to be more compliant, which was shown to be generally not true. In particular, Restorelle, the lightest mesh with the largest pores, is less compliant in the tested configurations than Surgipro, the heaviest, small-pore implant. Our study raises the question of defining a meaningful design target for meshes in terms of mechanical biocompatibility.
Materials2015, 8(5), 2782-2793; doi:10.3390/ma8052782 (registering DOI) - published 22 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Analysis of the induced stress on undoped and boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films by confocal Raman microscopy is performed in this study to investigate its correlation with sample chemical composition and the substrate used during fabrication. Knowledge of this nature is very important to the issue of long-term stability of BDD coated neurosurgical electrodes that will be used in fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, as potential occurrence of film delaminations and dislocations during their surgical implantation can have unwanted consequences for the reliability of BDD-based biosensing electrodes. To achieve a more uniform deposition of the films on cylindrically-shaped tungsten rods, substrate rotation was employed in a custom-built chemical vapor deposition reactor. In addition to visibly preferential boron incorporation into the diamond lattice and columnar growth, the results also reveal a direct correlation between regions of pure diamond and enhanced stress. Definite stress release throughout entire film thicknesses was found in the current Raman mapping images for higher amounts of boron addition. There is also a possible contribution to the high values of compressive stress from sp2 type carbon impurities, besides that of the expected lattice mismatch between film and substrate.
Materials2015, 8(5), 2769-2781; doi:10.3390/ma8052769 (registering DOI) - published 21 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: High transmittance ratio in visible range, low resistivity, and high mobility of IGZO thin films were prepared at room temperature for 30 min by co-sputtering of Zn2Ga2O5 (Ga2O3 + 2 ZnO, GZO) ceramic and In2O3 ceramic at the same time. The deposition power of pure In2O3 ceramic target was fixed at 100 W and the deposition power of GZO ceramic target was changed from 80 W to 140 W. We chose to investigate the deposition power of GZO ceramic target on the properties of IGZO thin films. From the SEM observations, all of the deposited IGZO thin films showed a very smooth and featureless surface. From the measurements of XRD patterns, only the amorphous structure was observed. We aimed to show that the deposition power of GZO ceramic targethad large effect on the Eg values, Hall mobility, carrier concentration, and resistivity of IGZO thin films. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis in the thicknesses’ profile of IGZO thin films found that In and Ga elements were uniform distribution and Zn element were non-uniform distribution. The SIMS analysis results also showed the concentrations of Ga and Zn elements increased and the concentrations of In element was almost unchanged with increasing deposition power.
Materials2015, 8(5), 2749-2768; doi:10.3390/ma8052749 (registering DOI) - published 21 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Metals are extensively used in a variety of applications in the medical field for internal support and biological tissue replacements, such as joint replacements, dental roots, orthopedic fixation, and stents. The metals and alloys that are primarily used in biomedical applications are stainless steels, Co alloys, and Ti alloys. The service period of a metallic biomaterial is determined by its abrasion and wear resistance. A reduction in the wear resistance of the implant results in the release of incompatible metal ions into the body that loosen the implant. In addition, several reactions may occur because of the deposition of wear debris in tissue. Therefore, developing biomaterials with high wear resistance is critical to ensuring a long life for the biomaterial. The aim of this work is to review the current state of knowledge of the wear of metallic biomaterials and how wear is affected by the material properties and conditions in terms of the type of alloys developed and fabrication processes. We also present a brief evaluation of various experimental test techniques and wear characterization techniques that are used to determine the tribological performance of metallic biomaterials.