Abstract: This essay, written by the guest editor, is an introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Intelligence devoted to methodological issues associated with the Flynn Effect. The essay evaluates past Flynn Effect research in terms of exploratory versus confirmatory efforts. Future research is also cast within this same framework. Finally, the four special issue papers are briefly reviewed, including comments on their own exploratory/confirmatory status.
Abstract: Figural reasoning as an indicator of fluid intelligence and the domains of the Five Factor Model were explored as predictors of scholastic performance. A total of 836 Chinese secondary school students (406 girls) from grades 7 to 11 participated. Figural reasoning, as measured by Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices, predicted performance in Math, Chinese, and English, and also for a composite score. Among the personality domains, Openness had a positive effect on performance for all subjects after controlling for all the other variables. For Conscientiousness, the effects were smaller and only significant for Math. Neuroticism had a negative effect on Math grades. The effects of Extraversion on all grades were very small and not significant. Most importantly, hierarchical latent regression analyses indicated that all interaction effects between Openness and figural reasoning were significant, revealing a compensatory interaction. Our results further suggest that scholastic performance basically relies on the same traits through the secondary school years. However, importance is given to interaction effects between ability and personality. Implications along with limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Abstract: Intelligence assessment is often viewed as a narrow and ever-narrowing field, defined (as per IQ) by the measurement of finely distinguished cognitive processes. It is instructive, however, to remember that other, broader conceptions of intelligence exist and might usefully be considered for a comprehensive assessment of intellectual functioning. This article invokes a more holistic, systems theory of intelligence—the theory of successful intelligence—and examines the possibility of including in intelligence assessment a similarly holistic measure of creativity. The time and costs of production-based assessments of creativity are generally considered prohibitive. Such barriers may be mitigated by applying the consensual assessment technique using novice raters. To investigate further this possibility, we explored the question: how much do demographic factors such as age and gender and psychological factors such as domain-specific expertise, personality or self-perceived creativity affect novices’ unidimensional ratings of creativity? Fifty-one novice judges from three undergraduate programs, majoring in three disparate expertise domains (i.e., visual art, psychology and computer science) rated 40 child-generated Lego creatures for creativity. Results showed no differences in creativity ratings based on the expertise domains of the judges. However, judges’ personality and self-perception of their own everyday creativity appeared to influence the way they scored the creatures for creativity.
Abstract: Creativity is a part of most theories of intelligence—sometimes a small part and sometimes a large part. Yet even IQ tests that assess aspects of intelligence that supposedly reflect creative abilities do not actually measure creativity. Recent work has argued that intelligence and creativity are more conceptually related than we have thought. In addition, creativity offers a potential way to counter issues of test bias from several different angles. That said, inherent difficulties in measuring creativity and inherent sluggishness in the test industry mean the odds are small that creativity will find its way into IQ tests as currently defined. However, there remain other potential possibilities in related fields.
Abstract: Crystallized intelligence is a pivotal broad ability factor in the major theories of intelligence including the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model, the three-stratum model, and the extended Gf-Gc (fluid intelligence-crystallized intelligence) model and is usually measured by means of vocabulary tests and other verbal tasks. In this paper the C-Test, a text completion test originally proposed as a test of general proficiency in a foreign language, is introduced as an integrative measure of crystallized intelligence. Based on the existing evidence in the literature, it is argued that the construct underlying the C-Test closely matches the abilities underlying the language component of crystallized intelligence, as defined in the well-established theories of intelligence. It is also suggested that by carefully selecting texts from pertinent knowledge domains, the factual knowledge component of crystallized intelligence could also be measured by the C-Test.
Abstract: Despite the high heritability of intelligence in the normal range, molecular genetic studies have so far yielded many null findings. However, large samples and self-imposed stringent standards have prevented false positives and gradually narrowed down where effects can still be expected. Rare variants and mutations of large effect do not appear to play a main role beyond intellectual disability. Common variants can account for about half the heritability of intelligence and show promise that collaborative efforts will identify more causal genetic variants. Gene–gene interactions may explain some of the remainder, but are only starting to be tapped. Evolutionarily, stabilizing selection and selective (near)-neutrality are consistent with the facts known so far.