Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(4), 3547-3563; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403547 (registering DOI) - published 27 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Background:Theaimof this studywas to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods:The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerianhormone (AMH) and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1) The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2)A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormoneand depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3)AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(4), 3535-3546; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403535 (registering DOI) - published 27 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Salmonellosis is an important but neglected disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Food or fecal-oral associated transmissions are the primary cause of infections, while the role of waterborne transmission is unclear. Samples were collected from different dug wells in a rural area of Ghana and analyzed for contamination with bacteria, and with Salmonella in particular. In addition, temporal dynamics and riks factors for contamination were investigated in 16 wells. For all Salmonella isolates antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed, serovars were determined and strains from the same well with the same serovar were genotyped. The frequency of well water contamination with Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria was 99.2% (n = 395). Out of 398 samples, 26 (6.5%) tested positive for Salmonella spp. The serovar distribution was diverse including strains not commonly isolated from clinical samples. Resistance to locally applied antibiotics or resistance to fluoroquinolones was not seen in the Salmonella isolates. The risk of Salmonella contamination was lower in wells surrounded by a frame and higher during the rainy season. The study confirms the overall poor microbiological quality of well water in a resource-poor area of Ghana. Well contamination with Salmonella poses a potential threat of infection, thus highlighting the important role of drinking water safety in infectious disease control.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(4), 3517-3534; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403517 (registering DOI) - published 27 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(4), 3506-3516; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403506 - published 25 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We examined the associations of daily mean concentrations of ambient air pollutants (particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO2)) and daily cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality in Wuhan, China using a case-crossover design to analyze four years of data (2006–2009) collected from the Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau. From 2006 to 2009, daily average concentrations of PM10, SO2 and NO2 were 115.60 µg/m3, 53.21 µg/m3 and 53.08 µg/m3, respectively. After adjusting for temperature and relative humidity, a 10 µg/m3 increase in SO2 and NO2 over a 24-h period was associated with CVD mortality relative risk (R.R.) of 1.010 (95% CI: 1.000, 1.020) for SO2 and 1.019 (95% CI: 1.005, 1.033) for NO2, but there was no significant association between increases in PM10 and mortality. Subgroup analysis on by gender showed a significant association of 1.026 (95% CI: 1.007, 1.045) between NO2 and CVD among males, while no significant statistical effect was shown among females. Subgroup analysis by age showed that for those older than 65 years, every 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 was associated with a 1.6% (95% CI: 0.1%, 3.1%) increase in CVD mortality. Subgroup analysis on different types of CVD showed that every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 and SO2 were significantly associated with an approximately 1.012 (95% CI: 1.002, 1.022) and 1.021 (95% CI: 1.002, 1.040) increase, respectively, in ischemic heart disease (ICH) mortality. In conclusion, exposure to NO2 is significantly associated with CVD mortality. Larger, multi-center studies in Chinese cities are being currently conducted to validate these findings.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(4), 3480-3505; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403480 - published 25 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2015, 12(4), 3469-3479; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403469 - published 24 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Background: caregivers’ knowledge on vaccination is an important impact factor for their children’s vaccination status. The aims of this study were to evaluate the caregivers’ knowledge of vaccination, and to assess effectiveness of a health education seminar for improving caregivers’ knowledge on immunization. Methods: pre- and post-assessment design was adopted for a single group to evaluate the effectiveness of the health education seminar on vaccination. The seminar consisted of a lecture using simple understandable language. Improvements in total knowledge score before and after the seminar were assessed using a validated questionnaire that included ten questions. Description analysis and non-parametric tests were applied to evaluate and compare the vaccination knowledge level before and after the seminar. Results: 378 caregivers participated in this study. The majority were mothers. Of the ten questions, the correct response rates had significantly increased for nine questions after the education seminar. The mean total score of the assessment before the seminar was 5.2 ± 1.2 while that was 8.4 ± 0.9 for the assessment after the seminar, with a significant increase of 3.18 points. Conclusion: a short education seminar designed for caregivers had a remarkable effect on their vaccination knowledge. Health education on vaccination targeting migrant caregivers, caregivers with lower education level or household income, and employed caregivers are needed in future.