Future Internet2015, 7(3), 257-275; doi:10.3390/fi7030257 - published 24 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The vehicular internet will drive the future of vehicular technology and intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Whether it is road safety, infotainment, or driver-less cars, the vehicular internet will lay the foundation for the future of road travel. Governments and companies are pursuing driver-less vehicles as they are considered to be more reliable than humans and, therefore, safer. The vehicles today are not just a means of transportation but are also equipped with a wide range of sensors that provide valuable data. If vehicles are enabled to share data that they collect with other vehicles or authorities for decision-making and safer driving, they thereby form a vehicular network. However, there is a lot at stake in vehicular networks if they are compromised. With the stakes so high, it is imperative that the vehicular networks are secured and made resilient to any attack or attempt that may have serious consequences. The vehicular internet can also be the target of a cyber attack, which can be devastating. In this paper, the opportunities that the vehicular internet offers are presented and then various security and privacy aspects are discussed and some solutions are presented.
Future Internet2015, 7(3), 225-256; doi:10.3390/fi7030225 - published 8 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In Internet of Things (IoT), the main driving technologies are considered to be tiny sensory objects. These objects cannot host traditional preventive and detective technologies to provide protection against the increasing threat sophistication. Furthermore, these solutions are limited to analyzing particular contextual information, for instance network information or files, and do not provide holistic context for risk analysis and response. Analyzing a part of a situation may lead to false alarms and later to unnecessary and incorrect configurations. To overcome these concerns, we proposed an event-driven adaptive security (EDAS) model for IoT. EDAS aims to observe security events (changes) generated by various things in the monitored IoT environment, investigates any intentional or unintentional risks associated with the events and adapts to it autonomously. It correlates different events in time and space to reduce any false alarms and provides a mechanism to predict attacks before they are realized. Risks are responded to autonomically by utilizing a runtime adaptation ontology. The mitigation action is chosen after assessing essential information, such as the risk faced, user preferences, device capabilities and service requirements. Thus, it selects an optimal mitigation action in a particular adverse situation. The objective of this paper is to investigate EDAS feasibility and its aptitude as a real-world prototype in a remote patient monitoring context. It details how EDAS can be a practical choice for IoT-eHealth in terms of the security, design and implementation features it offers as compared to traditional security controls. We have explained the prototype’s major components and have highlighted the key technical challenges.
Future Internet2015, 7(3), 214-224; doi:10.3390/fi7030214 - published 26 June 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In order to solve the problem of poor real-time performance, low accuracy and high computational complexity in the traditional process of locating and tracking of Direction of Arrival (DOA) of moving targets, this paper proposes a DOA algorithm based on the Direction Lock Loop (DILL) which adopts Lock Loop structure to realize the estimation and location of DOA and can adjust the direction automatically along with the changes of a signal’s angular variation to track the position of the signal. Meanwhile, to reduce the influence of nonlinearity and noise on its performance, the UKF filter is designed for eliminating interference of the estimated target signal to improve accuracy of the signal tracking and stability of the system. Simulation results prove that the algorithm can not only get a high resolution DOA estimate signal, but can also locate and track multiple mobile targets effectively with enhanced accuracy, efficiency and stability.
Future Internet2015, 7(2), 196-213; doi:10.3390/fi7020196 - published 11 June 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In recent years, train passengers have been transferring increasing amounts of data using mobile devices. Wireless networks with mobile relay nodes support broadband wireless communications for passengers of such vehicles using backhaul links. However, the mobility management entity reuses the handover of existing user equipment, resulting in the handover of the Long-Term Evolution network being unsuitable for user equipment within the cabins of vehicles traveling at high speed. In this paper, we propose a self-optimizing handover hysteresis scheme with dual mobile relay nodes for wireless networks in high-speed mobile environments. The proposed mechanism tunes the hysteresis and cell individual offset handover parameters based on the velocity of the vehicle and the handover performance indicator, which affects the handover triggering decision and performance. The results of simulations conducted in which the performance of the proposed scheme was compared to that of an existing scheme show that the proposed scheme can reduce the number of radio link failures and service interruptions during handover procedures.
Future Internet2015, 7(2), 184-195; doi:10.3390/fi7020184 - published 8 June 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Background: In 2011, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) consulted with the Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) team at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, to reproduce their successful model within the VHA. Methods: The VHA launched SCAN-ECHO (Specialty Care Access Network-Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes), a multisite videoconferencing system to conduct live clinical consultations between specialists at a VHA Medical Center (hospital) and primary care providers stationed at satellite VHA CBOCs (Community-Based Outpatient Clinic). Results: Analysis of the first three years rendered a mean attendee satisfaction of 89.53% and a consultation satisfaction score of 88.10%. About half of the SCAN-ECHO consultations resulted in patients receiving their treatment from their local primary care providers; the remaining half were referred to the VHA Medical Center when the treatment involved equipment or services not available at the CBOCs (e.g., MRI, surgery). Conclusion: This paper details the setup, operation logistics and preliminary findings, suggesting that SCAN-ECHO is a viable model for providing quality specialty clinical consultation service, prompter access to care, reduced commutes and continuing education. Additionally, the use of a secured Internet-based videoconferencing system that supports connectivity to multiple (mobile) devices could expand the utilization of this service.
Future Internet2015, 7(2), 170-183; doi:10.3390/fi7020170 - published 2 June 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We describe how statistical predictive models might play an expanded role in educational analytics by giving students automated, real-time information about what their current performance means for eventual success in eLearning environments. We discuss how an online messaging system might tailor information to individual students using predictive analytics. The proposed system would be data-driven and quantitative; e.g., a message might furnish the probability that a student will successfully complete the certificate requirements of a massive open online course. Repeated messages would prod underperforming students and alert instructors to those in need of intervention. Administrators responsible for accreditation or outcomes assessment would have ready documentation of learning outcomes and actions taken to address unsatisfactory student performance. The article’s brief introduction to statistical predictive models sets the stage for a description of the messaging system. Resources and methods needed to develop and implement the system are discussed.