Future Internet2015, 7(4), 372-392; doi:10.3390/fi7040372 - published 1 October 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Automated food and drink recognition methods connect to cloud-based lookup databases (e.g., food item barcodes, previously identified food images, or previously classified NIR (Near Infrared) spectra of food and drink items databases) to match and identify a scanned food or drink item, and report the results back to the user. However, these methods remain of limited value if we cannot further reasonwith the identified food and drink items, ingredients and quantities/portion sizes in a proposed meal in various contexts; i.e., understand from a semantic perspective their types, properties, and interrelationships in the context of a given user’s health condition and preferences. In this paper, we review a number of “food ontologies”, such as the Food Products Ontology/FOODpedia (by Kolchin and Zamula), Open Food Facts (by Gigandetet al.), FoodWiki (Ontology-driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System by Celik), FOODS-Diabetes Edition (A Food-Oriented Ontology-Driven System by Snae Namahoot and Bruckner), and AGROVOC multilingual agricultural thesaurus (by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization—FAO). These food ontologies, with appropriate modifications (or as a basis, to be added to and further expanded) and together with other relevant non-food ontologies (e.g., about diet-sensitive disease conditions), can supplement the aforementioned lookup databases to enable progression from the mere automated identification of food and drinks in our meals to a more useful application whereby we can automatically reasonwith the identified food and drink items and their details (quantities and ingredients/bromatological composition) in order to better assist users in making the correct, healthy food and drink choices for their particular health condition, age, body weight/BMI (Body Mass Index), lifestyle and preferences, etc.
Future Internet2015, 7(4), 363-371; doi:10.3390/fi7040363 - published 28 September 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper is based on the experience of introducing wireless sensor networks (WSNs) into the building industry in Denmark and in a rural area of Greenland. There are very real advantages in the application of the technology and its consequences for the life cycle operation of the building sector. Sensor networks can be seen as an important part of the Internet of Things and may even constitute an Internet of Sensors, since the communication layers can differ from the Internet standards. The current paper describes the case for application, followed by a discussion of the observed adaptive advantages and consequences of the technology. Essentially, WSNs constitute a highly sophisticated technology that is more robust in a rural context due to its extremely simple installation procedures (plug and play) allowing the use of local less-skilled labour, and the possibility of reconfiguring and repurposing its use remotely.
Future Internet2015, 7(3), 342-362; doi:10.3390/fi7030342 - published 23 September 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The self-organizing nature of the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) provide a communication channel anywhere, anytime without any pre-existing network infrastructure. However, it is exposed to various vulnerabilities that may be exploited by the malicious nodes. One such malicious behavior is introduced by blackhole nodes, which can be easily introduced in the network and, in turn, such nodes try to crumble the working of the network by dropping the maximum data under transmission. In this paper, a new protocol is proposed which is based on the widely used Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA), which makes use of multiple paths along with use of trust and asymmetric cryptography to ensure data security. The results, based on NS-3 simulation, reveal that the proposed protocol is effectively able to counter the blackhole nodes in three different scenarios.
Future Internet2015, 7(3), 329-341; doi:10.3390/fi7030329 - published 10 September 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: To monitor multiple environmental factors of henhouses in modern chicken farms, a henhouse online monitoring system based on wireless sensor network was developed using wireless sensor technology and computer network technology. Sensor data compensation and correction were designed to be achieved using software and data fitting methods, data reliable transmission achieved using a data loss recovery strategy, and data missing during monitoring addressed using a self-decision and online filling method. Operation test of the system showed that: The system was economic and reliable; it enabled wireless monitoring and Web display of the environmental factors of a henhouse; and the root mean square errors (RMSEs) between the estimated values from the self-decision and on-line filling method and experimental values of the four environmental factors were 0.1698, 3.0859, 77 and 0.094, respectively, indicative of high estimation accuracy. The system can provide support for modern management of henhouses and can be transplanted to related monitoring scenarios in the agricultural field.
Future Internet2015, 7(3), 307-328; doi:10.3390/fi7030307 - published 31 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: It is significant to reduce packet jitter for real-time applications in a wireless network. Existing coding-aware routing algorithms use the opportunistic network coding (ONC) scheme in a packet coding algorithm. The ONC scheme never delays packets to wait for the arrival of a future coding opportunity. The loss of some potential coding opportunities may degrade the contribution of network coding to jitter performance. In addition, most of the existing coding-aware routing algorithms assume that all flows participating in the network have equal rate. This is unrealistic, since multi-rate environments often appear. To overcome the above problem and expand coding-aware routing to multi-rate scenarios, from the view of data transmission, we present a low-jitter wireless transmission algorithm based on buffer management (BLJCAR), which decides packets in coding node according to the queue-length based threshold policy instead of the regular ONC policy as used in existing coding-aware routing algorithms. BLJCAR is a unified framework to merge the single rate case and multiple rate case. Simulations results show that the BLJCAR algorithm embedded in coding-aware routing outperforms the traditional ONC policy in terms of jitter, packet delivery delay, packet loss ratio and network throughput in network congestion in any traffic rates.
Future Internet2015, 7(3), 294-306; doi:10.3390/fi7030294 - published 11 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: As internet technologies make their way into developing areas, so too does the possibility of education and training being delivered to the people living in those previously unserved areas. The growing catalogue of free, high quality courseware, when combined with the newly acquired means of delivery, creates the potential for millions of people in the developing world to acquire a good education. Yet a good education obviously requires more than simply delivering information; students must also receive high quality feedback on their assessments. They must be told how their performance compares with the ideal, and be shown how to close the gap between the two. However, delivering high quality feedback is labor-intensive, and therefore expensive, and has long been recognized as a problematic issue by educators. This paper outlines a case study that uses a Learning Management System (LMS) to efficiently deliver detailed feedback that is informed by the principles of best practice. We make the case that the efficiencies of this method allow for large-scale courses with thousands of enrolments that are accessible to developing and developed areas alike. We explore the question; is computer-mediated feedback delivery efficient and effective and might it be applied to large-scale courses at low-cost?