Abstract: Over the last decades, improvement of medical and surgical therapy has increased life expectancy in Marfan patients. Consequently, the number of such patients requiring secondary interventions on the descending thoracic aorta due to new or residual dissections, and distal aneurysm formation has substantially enlarged. Surgical and endovascular procedures represent two valuable options of treatment, both associated with advantages and drawbacks. The aim of the present manuscript was to review endovascular outcomes in Marfan syndrome and to assess the potential role of Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR) in this subset of patients.
Abstract: Recently, new therapeutics have been developed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the overall survival rate of HCC patients is still unsatisfactory; one of the reasons for this is the high frequency of recurrence after radical treatment. Consequently, to improve prognosis, it will be important to develop a novel anti-tumor agent that is especially effective against HCC recurrence. For clinical application, long-term safety, together with high anti-tumor efficacy, is desirable. Recent studies have proposed menahydroquinone-4 1,4-bis-N,N-dimethylglycinate hydrochloride (MKH-DMG), a prodrug of menahydroquinone-4 (MKH), as a promising candidate for HCC treatment including the inhibition of recurrence; MKH-DMG has been shown to achieve good selective accumulation of MKH in tumor cells, resulting in satisfactory inhibition of cell proliferation in des-γ-carboxyl prothrombin (DCP)-positive and DCP-negative HCC cell lines. In a spleen-liver metastasis mouse model, MKH-DMG has been demonstrated to have anti-proliferation and anti-metastatic effects in vivo. The characteristics of MKH-DMG as a novel anti-HCC agent are presented in this review article.
Abstract: The gluten-free diet has long been considered the standard treatment for celiac disease. However, a significant number of patients continue to experience persistent symptoms despite following a gluten-free diet. Inadvertent gluten ingestion, fermentable carbohydrates, cross-contamination, and social or financial burdens present obstacles to maintaining a gluten-free diet. Proper diet education and follow-up by an expert Registered Dietitian (RD) is essential to ensure adequate nutrition on the gluten-free diet. Patients may experience unintended weight gain or elevated cholesterol levels after initiating the gluten-free diet due to adequate absorption and healing of the intestines. This review deals with the evolving gluten-free diet, optimal recommendations while considering the overall health of patients, and multi-factorial aspects of the permanent lifestyle change.
Abstract: Since the first evidence demonstrating the dramatically high incidence of H. pylori infection and the subsequent medical challenges it incurs, health management of H. pylori infection has been a high priority for health authorities worldwide. Despite a decreasing rate of infection in western countries, prevalence of H. pylori infection in developing and in some industrial countries is still very high. Whereas treatment and vaccination against H. pylori is a contemporary issue in medical communities, selective treatment and prior high-throughput screening of the subject population is a major concern of health organizations. So far, diagnostic tests are either elaborative and require relatively advanced medical care infrastructure or they do not fulfill the criteria recommended by the Maastricht IV/Florence consensus report. In this review, in light of recent scientific studies, we highlight current and possible future approaches for the diagnosis of H. pylori. We point out that novel non-invasive tests may not only cover the requirements of gold standard methods in H. pylori detection but also offer the potential for risk stratification of infection in a high throughput manner.
Abstract: Celiac disease is a permanent genetically determined intolerance to gluten that generally presents with gastrointestinal symptoms in young children and extraintestinal manifestations (endocrinological, dermatological, neurological, etc.) later. Furthermore, many studies demonstrate the close association between celiac and endocrine diseases, including growth and pubertal disorders, type I diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroid diseases, probably due to the presence of a common genetic predisposition. Follow-up for celiac children after the start of gluten-free diet is mandatory to avoid complications such as growth hormone deficiency. The present review deals with the problem of the diagnosis of endocrine-associated diseases in celiac children and gives suggestions for correct management and follow-up of these patients.
Abstract: In the present paper, we discuss the change in celiac disease (CD) awareness and perception through patients’ concerns and the most recent literature. Nowadays CD has moved in the public awareness (both doctors and population) from a rare disease to a common one and the gluten free diet (GFD) is no longer the exclusive therapy for CD patients but is becoming a popular health choice for everybody. Gluten-free food, once hard to find and requiring home preparation, is now available at restaurants and grocery stores. However, the quality of life of those affected by CD seems to be still compromised and this is particularly true for those who find it difficult to adhere to a GFD and those who were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. Intervention at diagnosis and follow-up to improve the patients’ adaptation to the condition and its limitations should be implemented.