Crystals2015, 5(1), 154-162; doi:10.3390/cryst5010154 - published 16 February 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Recent IUPAC (The International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry) recommendations on the terminology of metal-organic frameworks are reviewed and the background to a proposed topology classification is discussed. The various numerical designators such as point symbols, vertex symbols and transitivity are also explained and their importance elucidated.
Crystals2015, 5(1), 143-153; doi:10.3390/cryst5010143 - published 16 February 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: TEV (Thermal Expansion Visualizing) is a user-friendly program for the calculation of the thermal expansion tensor αij from diffraction data. Unit cell parameters determined from temperature dependent data collections can be provided as input. An intuitive graphical user interface enables fitting of the evolution of individual lattice parameters to polynomials up to fifth order. Alternatively, polynomial representations obtained from other fitting programs or from the literature can be entered. The polynomials and their derivatives are employed for the calculation of the tensor components of αij in the infinitesimal limit. The tensor components, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and their angles with the crystallographic axes can be evaluated for individual temperatures or for temperature ranges. Values of the tensor in directions parallel to either [uvw]’s of the crystal lattice or vectors (hkl) of reciprocal space can be calculated. Finally, the 3-D representation surface for the second rank tensor and pre- or user-defined 2-D sections can be plotted and saved in a bitmap format. TEV is written in JAVA. The distribution contains an EXE-file for Windows users and a system independent JAR-file for running the software under Linux and Mac OS X. The program can be downloaded from the following link: http://www.uibk.ac.at/mineralogie/downloads/TEV.html (Institute of Mineralogy and Petrography, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria)
Crystals2015, 5(1), 116-142; doi:10.3390/cryst5010116 - published 13 February 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This report describes extensive studies of deposition processes involving tin oxide (SnOx) nanoparticles on smooth glass surfaces. We demonstrate the use of smooth films of these nanoparticles as a platform for spatially-selective electroless deposition of silver by soft lithographic stamping. The edge and height roughness of the depositing metallic films are 100 nm and 20 nm, respectively, controlled by the intrinsic size of the nanoparticles. Mixtures of alcohols as capping agents provide further control over the size and shape of nanoparticles clusters. The distribution of cluster heights obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is modeled through a modified heterogeneous nucleation theory as well as Oswald ripening. The thermodynamic modeling of the wetting properties of nanoparticles aggregates provides insight into their mechanism of formation and how their properties might be further exploited in wide-ranging applications.
Crystals2015, 5(1), 100-115; doi:10.3390/cryst5010100 - published 12 February 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The crystal and molecular structures of the title compounds, phenyl quinoline-2-carboxylate and 2-methoxyphenyl quinoline-2-carboxylate, two new derivatives of quinolone-2-carboxylic acid, are reported and confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic data. Compound (I), C16H11NO2, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with 8 molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters are a = 14.7910(3) Å; b = 5.76446(12) Å; c = 28.4012(6) Å; β = 99.043(2)°; V = 2391.45(9) Å3. Compound (II), C17H13NO5, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n with 4 molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters are a = 9.6095(3) Å; b = 10.8040(3) Å; c = 13.2427(4) Å; β = 102.012(3)°; V = 1344.76(7) Å3. Density functional theory (DFT) geometry optimized molecular orbital calculations were performed and frontier molecular orbitals of each compound are displayed. Correlation between the calculated molecular orbital energies (eV) for the surfaces of the frontier molecular orbitals to the electronic excitation transitions from the absorption spectra of each compound has been proposed. Additionally, similar correlations observed among six closely related compounds examining small structural differences to their frontier molecular orbital surfaces and from their DFT molecular orbital energies, provide further support for the suggested assignments of the title compounds.
Abstract: Reductive amination of salicylaldehyde or 3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylaldehyde and 1-adamantylamine using NaBH4 gave the corresponding aminoalcohols in high yields. Subsequent addition of one equivalent of H3B·SMe2 to the aminoalcohols, with loss of two equivalents of dihydrogen, resulted in the formation of adamantanyl oxazaborinanes (1a,b). The molecular structure of 1b was studied by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study. Crystals were obtained from a saturated Et2O solution and belong to the triclinic space group Pī with unit cell parameters a = 9.1267(4) Å; b = 11.676(2) Å; c = 12.240(3) Å; α = 66.840(3)°; β = 78.529(3)°; and γ = 67.354(3)°. The molecular structure of the addition product (2a) arising from maltol and 1a was also confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystals were obtained from a saturated 1:2 mixture of toluene/Et2O and belong to the orthorhombic space group Pna2(1) with unit cell parameters a = 18.519(6) Å; b = 17.315(5) Å; and c = 12.680(4) Å. The asymmetric unit contains two molecules that differ slightly in some of the dihedral angles.
Abstract: In this review the dispersability of carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions containing proteins, or nucleic acids, is discussed. Data reported previously are complemented by unpublished ones. In the mentioned nanotube-based systems several different phases are observed, depending on the type and concentration of biopolymer, as well as the amount of dispersed nanotubes. The phase behavior depends on how much biopolymers are adsorbing, and, naturally, on the molecular details of the adsorbents. Proper modulation of nanotube/biopolymer interactions helps switching between repulsive and attractive regimes. Dispersion or phase separation take place, respectively, and the formation of liquid crystalline phases or gels may prevail with respect to dispersions. We report on systems containing ss-DNA- and lysozyme-stabilized nanotubes, representative of different organization modes. In the former case, ss-DNA rolls around CNTs and ensures complete coverage. Conversely, proteins randomly and non-cooperatively adsorb onto nanotubes. The two functionalization mechanisms are significantly different. A fine-tuning of temperature, added polymer, pH, and/or ionic strength conditions induces the formation of a given supra-molecular organization mode. The biopolymer physico-chemical properties are relevant to induce the formation of different phases made of carbon nanotubes.