Abstract: The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.
Abstract: A fast and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the measurement of caffeine in caffeine-laced pants and in urine and skin of a pants user. The substance and its internal standard (N-ethylnorcotinine) were separated by reversed phase chromatography with 5 mM ammonium formate pH 3.0 and 0.3% formic acid in acetonitrile mobile phase (83:17 v/v) by isocratic elution and detected by tandem mass spectrometry operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode via positive electrospray ionization. Linearity was studied from 1.4 to100 ng/mL range for urine, from 5 to 100 ng/cotton swab for skin caffeine and from 1.3 to 100 µg/samples for 4 cm2 textile samples. Good determination coefficients (r2 = 0.99) were found in all cases. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of different samples mean recoveries of caffeine were always higher than 80% and intra-assay and inter-assay imprecision and inaccuracy were always better than 105%. For the first time, caffeine content in this cosmetotextile was determined together with the measurement of caffeine released on the user skin, the absorbed amount with resulting urinary concentrations.
Abstract: Peptides of synthesis are a very new strategy in cosmetic science and technology for at least two reasons: (1) they are small molecules, easily penetrable in the skin and (2) they are able to induce a very specific action, because all skin cells (keratinocytes, fibroblasts, nervous cells) have membrane receptors for peptides. This group of cosmeceutics includes the botox-like peptides, represented by acetyl hexapeptide 3 (Argireline) and pentapeptid-3 (Leuphasyl). The latter is less known and has been less studied. This substance inhibits the neuromuscular synapses in the mimic muscles, acting as enkephalins. It links the enkephalin receptor to nervous cells, thereby modulating the release of acetylcholine in synaptic space. This cellular activity will be translated in vivo in a relaxation of the muscle and a reduction of expression wrinkles. The aim of our study is to evaluate the optimal concentration of Leuphasyl for skin application at the mimic muscle level, the efficiency and the safety of this peptide. We formulated three emulsions of different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%) which were applied to the skin, at the level of mimic muscles (1) at the eyebrows zone (above the corrugator supercilii muscle) and (2) at the periorbital zone (above the orbicularis oculi muscle). We evaluated the regression of the wrinkles between the eyebrows using an imagistic method: pro-derm Analyser. The study is of interest to discussions concerning how to apply these kinds of cosmetic products at the mimic muscle skin level and not at the level of the wrinkles.
Abstract: Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis are undesired side effects in the development of drugs and cosmetics as well as after contact with environmental or industrial chemicals. Over the last decades, a great deal of progress has been made in the development of alternative In vitro test to assess these issues. Driven by the 7th Amendment to the European Cosmetic Directive, the EU policy on chemicals (the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH) system), the update of the European legislation on the protection of animals used in research, and emerging visions and strategies for predicting toxicity, in vitro methods are likely to play a major role in the near future. On 12 December 2013, the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM, part of the European Commission Joint Research Centre) published its Recommendation on the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) for skin sensitization, capable of distinguishing sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Other assays (i.e., KeratinoSens™ assay) will follow shortly. While a number of methods are at various stages of development and use, currently it is not possible to rank chemicals for their sensitizing potency, an issue that is important for a full safety assessment. It is expected that a predictive method to totally replace animal testing will be in the form of a test battery comprising molecular, cell-based, and/or computational methods, the so-called “Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment”. This review aims to discuss the state-of-the-art in the field ofin vitro assessment of contact sensitizers.
Abstract: Many changes related to aging at the cellular level may be due to the physiological condition of mitochondria. One of the most common types of damage of mtDNA is the so-called “common deletion” referring to a deletion of 4977 base pairs. In the skin cells this phenomenon probably is caused by oxidative damage of mtDNA induced by UV. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the antioxidant l-ergothioneine on UV-induced damage in skin cells. The effect of l-ergothioneine on the reduced glutathione level was studied. The presence of the “common deletion” in human fibroblasts irradiated with UVA and treated with l-ergothioneine was evaluated by a polymerase chain reaction. We have demonstrated that l-ergothioneine enhanced the level of reduced glutathione and protected cells from the induction of a photoaging-associated mtDNA “common deletion”. In view of our results, l-ergothioneine could be an effective skin care and anti-photoaging ingredient.
Abstract: To evaluate the influence of the skin aging critical level on the adult skin epidermal functional state, an improved analytical method based on the skin surface energetic measurement (TVS modeling) was developed. Tenskinmetric measurements were carried out non-invasively in controlled conditions by contact angle method using only a water-drop as reference standard liquid. Adult skin was monitored by TVS Observatory according to a specific and controlled thermal protocol (Camianta protocol) in use at the interconnected “Mamma Margherita Terme spa” of Terme Euganee. From June to November 2013, the surface free energy and the epidermal hydration level of adult skin were evaluated on arrival of 265 male and 569 female adult volunteers (51–90 years of age) and when they departed 2 weeks later. Sensitive measurements were carried out at 0.1 mN/m. High test compliance was obtained (93.2% of all guests). Very interesting results are obtained. The high sensitivity and discrimination power of tenskinmetry combined with a thermal Camianta protocol demonstrate the possibility to evaluate at baseline level the surface energetic changes and the skin reactivity which occurs on adult skin.