Algorithms2015, 8(3), 552-561; doi:10.3390/a8030552 (registering DOI) - published 29 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this paper, we present three improvements to a three-point third order variant of Newton’s method derived from the Simpson rule. The first one is a fifth order method using the same number of functional evaluations as the third order method, the second one is a four-point 10th order method and the last one is a five-point 20th order method. In terms of computational point of view, our methods require four evaluations (one function and three first derivatives) to get fifth order, five evaluations (two functions and three derivatives) to get 10th order and six evaluations (three functions and three derivatives) to get 20th order. Hence, these methods have efficiency indexes of 1.495, 1.585 and 1.648, respectively which are better than the efficiency index of 1.316 of the third order method. We test the methods through some numerical experiments which show that the 20th order method is very efficient.
Algorithms2015, 8(3), 541-551; doi:10.3390/a8030541 (registering DOI) - published 29 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Robust small target detection of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is very important in infrared search and track applications for self-defense or attacks. Due to the complex background, current algorithms have some unsolved issues with false alarm rate. In order to reduce the false alarm rate, an infrared small target detection algorithm based on saliency detection and support vector machine was proposed. Firstly, we detect salient regions that may contain targets with phase spectrum Fourier transform (PFT) approach. Then, target recognition was performed in the salient regions. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm has ideal robustness and efficiency for real infrared small target detection applications.
Algorithms2015, 8(3), 529-540; doi:10.3390/a8030529 - published 27 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A parallel search strategy based on sparse representation (PS-L1 tracker) is proposed in the particle filter framework. To obtain the weights of state particles, target templates are represented linearly with the dictionary of target candidates. Sparse constraints on the coefficient guarantee that only true target candidates can be selected, and the nonnegative entries denote the associate weights of efficient target states. Then the optimal target state can be estimated by the linear combination of above weighted states. In this way, efficient target states are selected simultaneously from all the particles, which we call a parallel search strategy. Experimental results demonstrate excellent performance of the proposed method on challenging infrared images.
Algorithms2015, 8(3), 514-528; doi:10.3390/a8030514 - published 23 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We see how we can improve the accessibility of Newton’s method for approximating a solution of a nonlinear equation in Banach spaces when a center Hölder condition on the first derivative is used to prove its semi-local convergence.
Algorithms2015, 8(3), 484-513; doi:10.3390/a8030484 - published 14 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems over rapidly time varying channels may suffer from significant inter-carrier interference (ICI), which destroys the orthogonality between subcarriers and degrades the detection performance. Without sufficient ICI suppression, OFDM systems usually experience an error floor. According to the approximate matched filter bound (AMFB), the error floor in a coded OFDM system is not irreducible. In this work, we introduce novel multiple feedback matched filter (MBMF)-based ICI cancellation receivers. Based on the output of a novel MBMF scheme, the approach employs a multiple ICI cancellation strategy with or without signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) ordering. The developed schemes can significantly improve the performance and remove the error floor with a negligible complexity increase. Given the multiple cancellation approach, we compare the SINR performance of the MBMF outputs with that employing single feedback and show that the SINR performance with multiple cancellation candidates is improved over that with a single one at practical SNR values. Additionally, for time-varying channels, we exploit partial fast Fourier transform (PFFT) by splitting one OFDM symbol into multiple segments; the channel state is separately estimated by least-squares (LS) methods without inserting more pilots. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed methods over serial and block equalizers and the robustness to the Doppler effects compared to conventional single-segment method.
Algorithms2015, 8(3), 466-483; doi:10.3390/a8030466 - published 14 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Pattern recognition uses measurements from an input domain, X, to predict their labels from an output domain, Y. Image analysis is one setting where one might want to infer whether a pixel patch contains an object that is “manmade” (such as a building) or “natural” (such as a tree). Suppose the label for a pixel patch is “manmade”; if the label for a nearby pixel patch is then more likely to be “manmade” there is structure in the output domain that can be exploited to improve pattern recognition performance. Modeling P(X) is difficult because features between parts of the model are often correlated. Therefore, conditional random fields (CRFs) model structured data using the conditional distribution P(Y|X = x), without specifying a model for P(X), and are well suited for applications with dependent features. This paper has two parts. First, we overview CRFs and their application to pattern recognition in structured problems. Our primary examples are image analysis applications in which there is dependence among samples (pixel patches) in the output domain. Second, we identify research topics and present numerical examples.