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AgriEngineering, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2018)

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Open AccessArticle A SWAT Evaluation of the Effects of Climate Change on Renewable Water Resources in Salt Lake Sub-Basin, Iran
AgriEngineering 2018, 1(1), 44-57; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriengineering1010004
Received: 21 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
Future climate change is projected to have significant impacts on water resources availability in many parts of the world. This research evaluated climate change impacts on runoff, aquifer infiltration, renewable water resources, and drought intensity in Salt Lake sub-basin, Iran, by the Soil
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Future climate change is projected to have significant impacts on water resources availability in many parts of the world. This research evaluated climate change impacts on runoff, aquifer infiltration, renewable water resources, and drought intensity in Salt Lake sub-basin, Iran, by the Soil and Water assessment tool (SWAT) model and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) under A1B, A2, and B1 climatic scenarios for 2011–2030, 2046–2065, and 2080–2099, using 1986–2016 as the reference period. The model was calibrated and validated by the SWAT-CUP software and SUFI-2 algorithm. Nash–Sutcliffe (NS) coefficients (0.58 and 0.49) and the determination coefficients (R2) (0.65 and 0.50) were obtained for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. In order to study the climatic condition in the study basin, drought intensity was calculated. Then, drought intensity was predicted using the SPI index for the period 2011–2030. The results showed that runoff, infiltration, as well as renewable water resources will decrease under all climatic scenarios. Renewable water resources will be approximately reduced 100 Mm3 by the year 2100. The future projections suggest a regional increase of 2 °C in temperature and a 20% decrease in precipitation in the sub-basin. In particular, drought intensity will be increased in the future. In 2015, this index was −1.31, and in 2016, the SPI index was lower than −2. These projection scenarios should be of interest to water resources managers in tropical regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Scaled-Up Biodiesel Production from Meat Processing Dissolved Air Flotation Sludge: A Simulation Study
AgriEngineering 2018, 1(1), 17-43; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriengineering1010003
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
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Abstract
For the first time, a steady state computational simulation for the production of biodiesel from meat processing dissolved air flotation sludge via an integrated process of in-situ hydrolysis and esterification technologies has been investigated. Important thermophysical properties of the intrinsic lipids of dissolved
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For the first time, a steady state computational simulation for the production of biodiesel from meat processing dissolved air flotation sludge via an integrated process of in-situ hydrolysis and esterification technologies has been investigated. Important thermophysical properties of the intrinsic lipids of dissolved air flotation sludge were estimated using chemical constituent fragment methods. The environmental performance and the economic performance of the biodiesel production process were assessed via the estimation of the net energy ratio (NER) and the unit production cost, respectively. Since electrical energy requirements may be satisfied via either non-renewable (case A) or renewable sources (case B), the NER was determined for both scenarios. To enhance the robustness of the study results, uncertainties in the NER and the unit cost of the biodiesel production process due to the variability of the underlying study assumptions were also assessed. Uncertainty analysis indicated that the likely range of the NER for the biodiesel production process for cases A and B are 1.76 to 3.32 and 1.82 to 3.36, respectively, at 95% probability. Uncertainty analysis also showed that the likely range of the unit production cost for biodiesel is $US0.41/kg-biodiesel to $US0.71/kg-biodiesel at 95% probability. The results that were obtained in this study therefore provide evidence of both the environmental sustainability and the economic viability of biodiesel production from dissolved air flotation sludge via the proposed integrated process of in-situ hydrolysis and esterification. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note Methods for Protecting a Personal Computer and Data Acquisition Electronics Installed on Mobile Equipment
AgriEngineering 2018, 1(1), 4-16; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriengineering1010002
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Successful data acquisition on mobile platforms, such as tractors, requires the provision of protection for the sensitive electronics, as these platforms are inherently rife with electrical transients that have sufficient energy to cause damage to unprotected instrumentation. Unfortunately, though there are many protection
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Successful data acquisition on mobile platforms, such as tractors, requires the provision of protection for the sensitive electronics, as these platforms are inherently rife with electrical transients that have sufficient energy to cause damage to unprotected instrumentation. Unfortunately, though there are many protection options for industrial applications (i.e., those installed at 120VAC), off-the-shelf products for mobile protection are extremely limited and, after a survey, were determined to provide insufficient protection. The objective of this study was to identify the requirements for the protection of mobile platform instrumentation and equipment, and/or identify circuits that can perform this function. A literature review of electrical transients typical to automotive electronics was performed and circuit simulations were performed using open source software. Off-the-shelf circuit components were tested, via simulation, in various configurations until a design emerged that provided adequate protection from all surge classes. To ensure protection of valuable data, one of the design criteria was to ensure the circuit would continue to supply power to the personal computer (PC), and electronics, even during a load-dump event. The circuit was also designed to provide protection from electrical fast transients and electrostatic discharges. The reported circuit is capable of protecting a computer and data acquisition electronics installed on 12 VDC mobile equipment. This simple, inexpensive design meets Automotive Electronics Council requirements and uses readily available components without a specially fabricated circuit board. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial AgriEngineering—An Open Access, Open Source, Open Hardware Journal for the Agricultural Engineering Research Community
AgriEngineering 2018, 1(1), 1-3; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriengineering1010001
Received: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
AgriEngineering is the first open access, open source, open hardware journal anywhere in the world.[...] Full article
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