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J, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 11 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Dynamical Heat Conductivity of the Reservoir and Fluid Evacuation Zone on the Gas Condensate Well Flow Rate
J 2020, 3(1), 124-137; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3010011 - 14 Mar 2020
Viewed by 263
Abstract
This study shows that the thermal conductivity of the rock borehole adjacent to the wells varies depending on the operation of the well. This is due to the fact that the actual temperature and temperature difference affect the humidity and other thermal properties [...] Read more.
This study shows that the thermal conductivity of the rock borehole adjacent to the wells varies depending on the operation of the well. This is due to the fact that the actual temperature and temperature difference affect the humidity and other thermal properties of the rocks, which in turn affect the heat transfer coefficient across the section between the moving gas and the rocks. The static temperature field of primitive geothermal gradients acquires changes in a dynamic form. Theoretical consideration of changes in the thermal conductivity of rocks near the face and the wells is proposed to improve the prediction of gas condensate wells production. The result is achieved by introducing the specified equations of the thermal energy balance in the radial filtration and lifting of well products, which contain the coefficients of heat exchange and throttling. The refinement bias estimation of the 10%–15% level of gas condensate well extraction is shown using proposed methodological approach to relatively well-known (traditional in the field development practice) methods for estimating the extraction of a “medium well” from a particular oil and gas field evaluation. The results of this work demonstrate important scientific, applied, educational and methodological significance of using the methodology presented by the authors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Jesus Christ’s Speeches in Maria Valtorta’s Mystical Writings: Setting, Topics, Duration and Deep-Language Mathematical Analysis
J 2020, 3(1), 100-123; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3010010 - 12 Mar 2020
Viewed by 823
Abstract
We have studied Jesus Christ’s speeches contained in The Gospel as revealed to me by Maria Valtorta to assess: (i) similarities and differences of the speeches delivered to diverse audiences, through deep-language statistics; (ii) duration of the speeches delivered in different occasions; (iii) [...] Read more.
We have studied Jesus Christ’s speeches contained in The Gospel as revealed to me by Maria Valtorta to assess: (i) similarities and differences of the speeches delivered to diverse audiences, through deep-language statistics; (ii) duration of the speeches delivered in different occasions; (iii) whether the setting of the speeches is realistic. Mathematically, the speeches can be divided into two sets: (a) two apparently well-planned and coordinated series of speeches delivered at “Clear Water” and at the Horns of Hattin (Sermon of the Mountain); (b) extempore speeches delivered in many localities (parables, speeches to people or to disciples, in Synagogues, at the Temple). By converting sequences of words into intervals, through a suitable reading/speaking speed, the speeches’ durations were found to be realistic. The setting of the speeches allows the assessment of the likelihood of the places and occasions for delivering them. Maria Valtorta wrote extraordinary speeches that she attributed to the alleged Jesus of Nazareth. In addition to their theological and doctrinal contents (whose study is far beyond the scope of this paper), the speeches are so realistic in whatever mathematical parameter, or setting, we study them, that she is either a great literary author, or—as she claims—an attentive “eyewitness” of what she reports. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rural and Urban Population Differences in the Association of Dietary Calcium with Blood Pressure and Hypertension Occurrence: Analysis of Longitudinal Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey
J 2020, 3(1), 90-99; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3010009 - 05 Mar 2020
Viewed by 310
Abstract
The relationship of dietary calcium intake (DCI) to blood pressure (BP) and hypertension occurrence (HTN) in the general population is controversial. Few studies have reported the impact of DCI on high blood pressure (HBP) and HTN in rural and urban populations (RPs and [...] Read more.
The relationship of dietary calcium intake (DCI) to blood pressure (BP) and hypertension occurrence (HTN) in the general population is controversial. Few studies have reported the impact of DCI on high blood pressure (HBP) and HTN in rural and urban populations (RPs and UPs, respectively). In this study, we assessed how DCI is related to BP and HTN among the RP and the UP. This retrospective study used data from the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) for 2000–2009. We analyzed 12,052 records from 3013 participants using path analysis and logistic regressions. DCI and HTN were significantly higher in the UP compared to the RP. When UPs and RPs were analyzed together, a 1 unit increase in DCI decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 0.01 (p = 0.002) but had no effect on diastolic blood pressure. Males vs. females from the RP presented significant risk of HTN by the high DCI (OR = 2.3 (1.6–3.6)). DCI and its association with BP varied based on living environment and sex. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity of Planaria to Weak, Patterned Electric Current and the Subsequent Correlative Interactions with Fluctuations in the Intensity of the Magnetic Field of Earth
J 2020, 3(1), 79-89; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3010008 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 327
Abstract
Some species of fish show highly evolved mechanisms by which they can detect exogenous electric and magnetic fields. The detection of electromagnetic fields has been hypothesized to exist in humans, despite the lack of specialized sensors. In this experiment, planaria were tested in [...] Read more.
Some species of fish show highly evolved mechanisms by which they can detect exogenous electric and magnetic fields. The detection of electromagnetic fields has been hypothesized to exist in humans, despite the lack of specialized sensors. In this experiment, planaria were tested in a t-maze with weak electric current pulsed in one arm to determine if the planaria showed any indication of being able to detect it. It was found that a small proportion of the population seemed to be attracted to this current. Additionally, if the experiment was preceded by a geomagnetic storm, the planaria showed a linear correlation increase in the variability of their movement in response to the presence of the weak electric field. Both of these results indicate that a subpopulation of planaria show some ability to respond to electromagnetic fields. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Sunspot Numbers and Mean Annual Precipitation: Application of Cross-Wavelet Transform—A Case Study
J 2020, 3(1), 67-78; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3010007 - 15 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 283
Abstract
Observations show that the Sun, which is the primary source of energy for the Earth’s climate system, is a variable star. In order to understand the influence of solar variability on the Earth’s climate, knowledge of solar variability and solar–terrestrial interactions is required. [...] Read more.
Observations show that the Sun, which is the primary source of energy for the Earth’s climate system, is a variable star. In order to understand the influence of solar variability on the Earth’s climate, knowledge of solar variability and solar–terrestrial interactions is required. Knowledge of the Sun’s cyclic behavior can be used for future prediction purposes on Earth. In this study, the possible connection between sunspot numbers (SSN) as a proxy for the 11-year solar cycle and mean annual precipitation (MAP) in Iran were investigated, with the motivation of contributing to the controversial issue of the relationship between SSN and MAP. Nine locations throughout Iran were selected, representing different climatic conditions in the country. Cross-wavelet transform (XWT) analysis was employed to investigate the temporal relationship between cyclicities in SSN and MAP. Results indicated that a distinct 8–12-year correlation exists between the two time series of SSN and MAP, and peaks in precipitation mostly occur one to three years after the SSN maxima. The findings of this study can be beneficial for policymakers, to consider future potential droughts and wet years based on sunspot activities, so that water resources can be more properly managed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Animal Study to Compare Hepatoprotective Effects Between Fermented Rice Bran and Fermented Rice Germ and Soybean in a Sprague-Dawley Rat Model of Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Injury
J 2020, 3(1), 54-66; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3010006 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 284
Abstract
We compared hepatoprotective effects between fermented rice bran (FRB) and fermented rice germ and soybean (FRS) in a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model of alcohol-induced hepatic injury (AIHI). To establish an SD rat model of AIHI, the SD rats were given 30% ethanol or [...] Read more.
We compared hepatoprotective effects between fermented rice bran (FRB) and fermented rice germ and soybean (FRS) in a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model of alcohol-induced hepatic injury (AIHI). To establish an SD rat model of AIHI, the SD rats were given 30% ethanol or water without ethanol treatment. Then, they were given 30% ethanol followed by FRB or FRS at concentrations of 15% or 30%. Our results indicate that the FRB might be more effective in lowering serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the serum and liver mitochondria, serum triglyceride levels and ALDH levels at a concentration of 15%, serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), GSH levels at a concentration of 30% and MDA levels in the liver homogenate and microsome, and hepatic triglyceride levels at both concentrations as compared with the FRS. It can therefore be concluded that FRB might also be considered as an alternative to FRS in improving the AIHI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel PV Array Reconfiguration Algorithm Approach to Optimising Power Generation across Non-Uniformly Aged PV Arrays by Merely Repositioning
J 2020, 3(1), 32-53; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3010005 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 374
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) module working conditions lack consistency and PV array power outputs fluctuate due to the non-uniform impact that aging has on various PV modules in a PV array. No assessment has been conducted on the energy potential of a non-uniform PV array, [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) module working conditions lack consistency and PV array power outputs fluctuate due to the non-uniform impact that aging has on various PV modules in a PV array. No assessment has been conducted on the energy potential of a non-uniform PV array, despite the fact that the maximum power point (MPP) can be tracked by global maximum power point tracking (GMPPT). Therefore, the present work undertakes such an assessment by devising an algorithm to optimise the PV array electrical structure as the PV modules undergo aging in a non-uniform way. To enable PV arrays with non-uniform aging to produce as much power as possible and to make maintenance more cost-effective, the work puts forward a novel approach for reconfiguring PV arrays, where the PV modules are repositioned by retaining the aged PV modules. By this approach, the selection of the best reconfiguration topology necessitates the information on the electrical parameters associated with the PV modules in an array. Furthermore, the non-uniform aging of the PV modules can engender an incompatibility effect, which can be diminished in the proposed algorithm through iterative sorting of the modules in a hierarchical pattern. To determine how effective the method is for PV arrays with non-uniform aging and of different sizes, such as 3 × 4, 5 × 8 and 7 × 8 arrays, computer simulation and analysis have been conducted, with findings indicating that, irrespective of dimensions, PV arrays with non-uniform aging can have improved power yield. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Evaluation of the Factors that Promote Improved Experience and Better Outcomes of Older Adults in Intermediate Care Setting
J 2020, 3(1), 20-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3010004 - 08 Feb 2020
Viewed by 351
Abstract
The aim of this article was to identify the main contributing factors to optimising improved experience and better outcomes for older adults participating in intermediate care setting. Background: Intermediate care is an integrated team intervention for patients experiencing an acute change in their [...] Read more.
The aim of this article was to identify the main contributing factors to optimising improved experience and better outcomes for older adults participating in intermediate care setting. Background: Intermediate care is an integrated team intervention for patients experiencing an acute change in their function and well-being. Crisis intervention is one of several intermediate care pathways and provides a timely, person-centred, goal setting assessment to determine appropriate care and support for patients in the community. Method: This systematic review was conducted using key search terms and Boolean operators. A Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool was used to evaluate the studies and the data was extracted and synthesised systematically to develop themes relating to the research question. Results: Seven qualitative primary research studies and one mixed methods study were identified. The main themes were ‘communicating with patients’ and ‘patient participation’. Results showed neither themes are parallel entities but co-dependent. Patient-centred approaches to communication by professionals encouraged active patient participation, in turn optimising patient outcomes. Conclusion: This review showed that patient participation in intermediate care requires professionals using advanced communication skills and taking time to actively listen to what is important to the patients. In addition, poor professional communication resulted in passive patient participation. Implications for future practice are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
From Microbial Ecology to Innovative Applications in Food Quality Improvements: the Case of Sourdough as a Model Matrix
J 2020, 3(1), 9-19; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3010003 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 401
Abstract
Since millennia, humankind has exploited microbial diversity associated to give food matrices in order to obtain fermented foods and beverages, resulting in products with improved quality and extended shelf life. This topic has received deserved and continuous interest in the scientific community, for [...] Read more.
Since millennia, humankind has exploited microbial diversity associated to give food matrices in order to obtain fermented foods and beverages, resulting in products with improved quality and extended shelf life. This topic has received deserved and continuous interest in the scientific community, for the reason of its significance as a driver of innovation in the food and beverage sector. In this review paper, using sourdough as a model matrix, we provide some insights into the field, testifying the relevance as a transdisciplinary subject. Firstly, we encompassed the prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial diversity associated with the sourdough ecosystems. The importance of this micro-biodiversity in the light of flour-related chemical diversity was examined. Finally, we highlighted the increasing interest in microbial-based applications oriented toward biocontrol solution in the field of sourdough-based products (i.e., bread). Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of J in 2019
J 2020, 3(1), 7-8; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3010002 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 233
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessOpinion
Night Matters—Why the Interdisciplinary Field of “Night Studies” Is Needed
J 2020, 3(1), 1-6; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3010001 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 681
Abstract
The night has historically been neglected in both disciplinary and interdisciplinary research. To some extent, this is not surprising, given the diurnal bias of human researchers and the difficulty of performing work at night. The night is, however, a critical element of biological, [...] Read more.
The night has historically been neglected in both disciplinary and interdisciplinary research. To some extent, this is not surprising, given the diurnal bias of human researchers and the difficulty of performing work at night. The night is, however, a critical element of biological, chemical, physical, and social systems on Earth. Moreover, research into social issues such as inequality, demographic changes, and the transition to a sustainable economy will be compromised if the night is not considered. Recent years, however, have seen a surge in research into the night. We argue that “night studies” is on the cusp of coming into its own as an interdisciplinary field, and that when it does, the field will consider questions that disciplinary researchers have not yet thought to ask. Full article
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