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Evaluating the Stability of Double Emulsions—A Review of the Measurement Techniques for the Systematic Investigation of Instability Mechanisms

Institute of Process Engineering in Life Sciences, Chair of Food Process Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
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Colloids Interfaces 2020, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids4010008
Received: 28 October 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2020 / Accepted: 28 January 2020 / Published: 31 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emulsion Applications)
Double emulsions are very promising for various applications in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and food. Despite lots of published research, only a few products have successfully been marketed due to immense stability problems. This review describes approaches on how to characterize the stability of double emulsions. The measurement methods are used to investigate the influence of the ingredients or the process on the stability, as well as of the environmental conditions during storage. The described techniques are applied either to double emulsions themselves or to model systems. The presented analysis methods are based on microscopy, rheology, light scattering, marker detection, and differential scanning calorimetry. Many methods for the characterization of double emulsions focus only on the release of the inner water phase or of a marker encapsulated therein. Analysis methods for a specific application rarely give information on the actual mechanism, leading to double emulsion breakage. In contrast, model systems such as simple emulsions, microfluidic emulsions, or single-drop experiments allow for a systematic investigation of diffusion and coalescence between the individual phases. They also give information on the order of magnitude in which they contribute to the failure of the overall system. This review gives an overview of various methods for the characterization of double emulsion stability, describing the underlying assumptions and the information gained. With this review, we intend to assist in the development of stable double emulsion-based products. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple emulsion; emulsion stability; coalescence; diffusion; encapsulation efficiency multiple emulsion; emulsion stability; coalescence; diffusion; encapsulation efficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leister, N.; Karbstein, H.P. Evaluating the Stability of Double Emulsions—A Review of the Measurement Techniques for the Systematic Investigation of Instability Mechanisms. Colloids Interfaces 2020, 4, 8. https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids4010008

AMA Style

Leister N, Karbstein HP. Evaluating the Stability of Double Emulsions—A Review of the Measurement Techniques for the Systematic Investigation of Instability Mechanisms. Colloids and Interfaces. 2020; 4(1):8. https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids4010008

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leister, Nico; Karbstein, Heike P. 2020. "Evaluating the Stability of Double Emulsions—A Review of the Measurement Techniques for the Systematic Investigation of Instability Mechanisms" Colloids Interfaces 4, no. 1: 8. https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids4010008

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