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Molecules to Microbes
Open AccessArticlePost Publication Peer ReviewVersion 1, Original

Influence of Gravitational Shielding on Time Dilation (Version 1, Original)

Department of Physics, Loyola College, Chennai 600034, India
Network of Researchers on the Chemical Evolution of Life, Leeds LS7 3RB, UK
Department of Physics, Sri Sankara Arts and Science College, Enathur, Kancheepuram 631561, India
Department of Physics, Scott Christian College, Nagercoil 629 003, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2019 / Accepted: 2 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecules to Microbes)
Peer review status: 1st round review Read review reports

Reviewer 1 Andrea Addazi Sichuan University Reviewer 2 Elena Fedorova researcher Reviewer 3 Rui Xu KIAA-PKU
Version 1
Not approved Approved with revisions Not approved
This research work investigates the possibility of shielding gravity. The ultimate purpose of this work is to understand the reality behind the concept of Gravitational Shielding (GS) and time dilation. Since the 19th century, scientists have tried to arrive at an understanding of GS via the use of various experiments. Unfortunately, some experiments failed to prove the existence of gravitational shielding, whereas some results proclaimed the possibility of attaining GS. The original phenomenon exhibited by nature cannot easily be understood, but some experiments have demonstrated that the answer may lie behind the mysterious GS. If GS is proved, then in the future, it would be possible to travel across black holes by defying gravity or through any bigger mass having high gravitational field. To unravel the mystery of GS, this work investigates the history of GS and considers the future vision of technologically advanced spacecraft or other warp drive mechanisms with appropriate gravitational shielding. Though the problem is very complex, this research work tries to come to a deeper understanding and explanation of the complexity involved in achieving gravitational shielding. View Full-Text
Keywords: gravitational shielding; Casimir effect; electromagnetic field; gravity gravitational shielding; Casimir effect; electromagnetic field; gravity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Raj, S.; Jheeta, S.; Daniel; Krishna, A.; Pious, J.; Oliver, H. Influence of Gravitational Shielding on Time Dilation. Sci 2019, 1, 45.

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Reviewer 1

Sent on 18 Oct 2019 by Andrea Addazi | Not approved
Sichuan University

The authors of this paper speculate on a “old” idea of Ettore Majorana
about a possible “gravitational shielding” effect.
If in principle the original idea of Majorana is interesting
even if particularly “exotic”,
it is practically impossible to follow the logic of this paper.
Indeed the paper is written in a very confused and imprecise way;
full of strong claims that do not look fully justified
by convincing arguments and rigorous scientific method.
Even the pagination of equations, a lack of precision in editing
and the poorness of language level give the general
impression that this paper is far to be in publishable form.
Therefore I cannot take the responsibility to accept this paper.

Reviewer 2

Sent on 20 Aug 2019 by Elena Fedorova | Approved with revisions

he paper discuss actual and interesting questions of Relativity and I recommend it for publication. However, some moderate changes should be done to it.
1.In the section "Introduction" should be adde some notes about negative masses as it can play the role of gravitational shield, too. Kazimir effect should be described in more detailed and clear way.
I advice to include the following citations concerning the negative mass problem:
Bondi, H. (1957). "Negative Mass in General Relativity". Reviews of Modern Physics. 29 (3): 423–428. Bibcode:1957RvMP...29..423B.
Petit, J. P.; d'Agostini, G. (2014). "Negative mass hypothesis in cosmology and the nature of dark energy". Astrophysics and Space Science. 354 (2): 611. doi:10.1007/s10509-014-2106-5.
Petit, J. P.; d'Agostini, G. (2014). "Cosmological bimetric model with interacting positive and negative masses and two different speeds of light, in agreement with the observed acceleration of the Universe". Modern Physics Letters A. 29 (34): 1450182.

2. Equations (1) and (22) - integrating limemts should be added.

3. The equations (15)-(21): it's enough to leave in the main text the first (15) and the last one (21) only. The rest can be placed in an Appendix.
The same for the set of equations (23) to (28).

4. Two sections - "Gravitational Shielding and time dilation" and "Discusiion" have the same number 6.

5. There are also some misprints, namely:
31-32: "gravitational effect" - it looks like here the word "shielding" is missed ("gravitational shielding effect").
40: be4.3 - space between be and 4.3. is needed
41: as0.6 - the same
71-72: ...EM. Theory but... -> ...EM theory. But...
136: Higgsfield -> Higgs field
151: "magnetic field dust" is not understandable.

Reviewer 3

Sent on 16 Jan 2020 by Rui Xu | Not approved

Gravitational shielding has been considered for a long time as a phenomenon that is beyond General Relativity. The new idea in this paper is considering its effect on time dilation. I do not recommend it to be published due to the following concerns:

In the main result, equation (29), the meaning of the time t_f is not clear. The author do not specify where the time t_f should be measured if it is to be tested in experiments or observations. Equation (29) is wrong in the sense that the reduced mass of the sun and the earth is finally used, but the distance of shield is taken as the distance from the earth. As we know, the center of mass for the earth-sun system is inside the sun. Equation (29) is also wrong because it is derived from equation (1), which applies to a point mass placed at the center of a spherical shell. The solar eclipse model described by the authors treats the moon as the shielding material. However the moon is not a spherical shell enclosing the earth-sun system. The sections on Casimir effect, negative energy and gravitational shielding by scalar field try to give motivations or theoretical explanations to gravitational shielding phenomena. But they do not explain equation (1) in a more fundamental level. These sections seem irrelevant to the purpose of the article.
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