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An Experiment-Based Methodology for Evaluating the Impacts of Full Bandwidth Load on the Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electrified Vehicles (Version 1)

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, California State University, 5151 State University Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90032-8152, USA
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of North Carolina, 9201 University City Blvd, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001, USA
3
Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems at Mississippi State University, 200 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS 39759, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles)
Peer review status: 2nd round review Read review reports

Reviewer 1 Amin Karegarian Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Reviewer 2 Reza Ahmadi University of Kansas
Version 1 Approved with revisions
Authors' response
Approved with revisions
Authors' response
Version 2 Approved Approved
Version 2
Published: 21 April 2019
DOI: 10.3390/sci1010026
  |  
PDF [3910 KB, uploaded 9 May 2019]
  |  

Version 1
Published: 1 November 2018
DOI: 10.3390/sci1010003.v1
PDF [1498 KB, uploaded 19 December 2018]

Abstract

In Electrified Vehicles, the cost, efficiency, and durability of electrified vehicles are dependent on the energy storage system (ESS) components, configuration and its performance. This paper, pursuing a minimal size tactic, describes a methodology for quantitatively and qualitatively investigating the impacts of a full bandwidth load on the ESS in the HEV. However, the methodology can be extended to other electrified vehicles. The full bandwidth load, up to the operating frequency of the electric motor drive (20 kHz), is empirically measured which includes a frequency range beyond the usually covered frequency range by published standard drive cycles (up to 0.5 Hz). The higher frequency band is shown to be more efficiently covered by a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) which in this paper is defined as combination of a high energy density battery, an Ultra-Capacitor (UC), an electrolytic capacitor, and a film capacitor. In this paper, the harmonic and dc currents and voltages are measured through two precision methods and then the results are used to discuss about overall HEV efficiency and durability. More importantly, the impact of the addition of high-band energy storage devices in reduction of power loss during transient events is disclosed through precision measurement based methodology.
Keywords: hybrid energy storage; energy efficiency; frequency domain analysis; hybrid electric vehicles hybrid energy storage; energy efficiency; frequency domain analysis; hybrid electric vehicles
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Shahverdi, M.; Mazzola, M.; Doude, M.; Grice, Q.; Gafford, J.; Sockeel, N. An Experiment-Based Methodology for Evaluating the Impacts of Full Bandwidth Load on the Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electrified Vehicles. Sci 2019, 1, 3.

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Review Reports

Reviewer 1

Sent on 30 Nov 2018 by Amin Karegarian | Approved with revisions
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA

This paper describes a methodology for quantitatively and qualitatively investigating the impacts of a full bandwidth load on the ESS in the HEV. Generally speaking, this is a good paper. I have the following minor comments: - Please remove the gray zone around the figures 1, 2, 5, 7, and Appendix. - A line is needed on top of each table to separate it from the main text. - Equations 1 and 2 should not be boldface.

Response to Reviewer 1

Sent on 17 Aug 2019 by Masood Shahverdi, Michael Mazzola, Jim Gafford, Nicolas Sockeel, Matthew Doude, Quintin Grice

Thank you for taking your time and helping us improve the work. All comments have been addressed except one that is out of our hands. We agree with the reviewer that removing gray zones around the figures makes the paper appearance better; however, in some cases the access to raw data to reproduce the figures need significant amount of time and effort at this time. If the respected review allows us to proceed without changing the gray zone, it will be appreciated.

Reviewer 2

Sent on 02 Mar 2019 by Reza Ahmadi | Approved with revisions
University of Kansas

The paper deals with a methodology for investigating the impacts of a full bandwidth load on the ESS in the HEV and provides experimental study to verify the analysis.

The paper is logically built and easy to follow, however some aspects should be improved prior to publication.

 

1- Page 6: Please define what Vr, Vc and Vout stand for in Eqns (1) and (2).

2- Page 6: Please explain more about “the RC branch represents an energy storage device (ESD)”.

3- Page 9: Please define the parameters used in Fig. 3.

4- Page 14: Table 1 should be changed to label 2. Table 2 should be changed to table 3 (Table 1 is already defined in page 10). Please make sure the table numbers are correct.

5- Page 15, line 2: there is a missing reference.


Response to Reviewer 2

Sent on 17 Aug 2019 by Masood Shahverdi, Michael Mazzola, Jim Gafford, Nicolas Sockeel, Matthew Doude, Quintin Grice

Thanks for taking time and helping us improve this work, all comments have been addressed in the new revision.

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