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Infrastructures, Volume 6, Issue 6 (June 2021) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Even though the number of fatalities at tunnel lay-bys and portals is low, these specific road sites are hazardous spots for road users. In cases where the end-wall of a tunnel lay-by and portal is not well designed, these are critical spots on the road in the event of a vehicle collision. Vehicles are massively damaged, and intrusions into the passenger compartment are likely to take place. A number of safety measures are currently available (crash cushions, concrete barriers, guardrails, etc.) to protect occupants in passenger. However, only a small number of studies have investigated the performance of safety measures for lay-bys and portals. Thus, four different protection measures were investigated to identify the most promising measure in terms of occupant protection. View this paper.
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Article
Railway Track Loss-of-Stiffness Detection Using Bogie Filtered Displacement Data Measured on a Passing Train
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060093 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 380
Abstract
This paper presents an innovative numerical framework for railway track monitoring using acceleration measurements from sensors installed on a passenger train. A numerical model including a 10 degrees of freedom train passing over a three-layer track is employed. The bogie filtered displacement (BFD) [...] Read more.
This paper presents an innovative numerical framework for railway track monitoring using acceleration measurements from sensors installed on a passenger train. A numerical model including a 10 degrees of freedom train passing over a three-layer track is employed. The bogie filtered displacement (BFD) is obtained from the bogie vertical acceleration using a numerical integration method and a band-pass filter. The BFD is compared to the filtered track longitudinal profile and can be seen to contain the main features of the track profile. This is also experimentally confirmed using field measurements where an in-service Irish Rail train was instrumented using inertial sensors. The proposed algorithm is employed to find the BFDs from the bogie accelerations. A track level survey was also undertaken to validate the measurements. It is shown that the BFDs from several passes are in good agreement with the surveyed profile. Finally, the BFDs are numerically used to find track defects such as hanging sleepers. The mean of the BFDs obtained from two populations of train passes over a healthy and a damaged track are employed to detect the loss of stiffness at the subgrade layer. The effect of the train forward speed variation and measurement noise are also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Assessment and Health Monitoring of Infrastructures)
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Article
Accessibility in European Peripheral Territories: Analyzing the Portuguese Mainland Connectivity Patterns from 1985 to 2020
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060092 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
The inner periphery European countries, as is the case of Portugal, are characterized by poor access to essential areas and services of general and social relations. Contextually, this paper aims to explore the linkages between inner peripheries, ultra-peripherality concepts, and the concept of [...] Read more.
The inner periphery European countries, as is the case of Portugal, are characterized by poor access to essential areas and services of general and social relations. Contextually, this paper aims to explore the linkages between inner peripheries, ultra-peripherality concepts, and the concept of accessibility from 1985 to 2020, in parallel with the analysis of some demographic trends in the same research period. Thus, the study deals with accessibility and the analysis of accessibility-related spatial distribution to represent the traditional core—periphery pattern, with the highest accessibility in the center of the mainland and west coastal area, and the lowest accessibility in remote regions. The results show that the distribution of the road infrastructure is not uniform in Portugal. Furthermore, the NUTS II regions of PT13 Lisboa e Vale do Tejo (the Lisbon region) and PT11 Norte (northern Portugal) have the greatest road per km2. The Lisbon region has the highest concentration of national roads globally, while the northern region has the highest concentration of municipal roads. These two regions are, by far, the most densely populated, encompassing about ¾ of the national population and GDP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning Peripheral and Ultra-Peripheral Infrastructures)
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Article
A Moving Vehicle Height Monitoring Sensor System for Overheight Impact Avoidance
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060091 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Bridges, overpasses, and road construction sites with reduced vertical clearance lead to collision threats from crossing vehicles that exceed their clearance due to their inherent height or improper loading. These accidents can pose slight or severe physical damage to property and, primarily, damage [...] Read more.
Bridges, overpasses, and road construction sites with reduced vertical clearance lead to collision threats from crossing vehicles that exceed their clearance due to their inherent height or improper loading. These accidents can pose slight or severe physical damage to property and, primarily, damage to involved individuals in these vehicles or their affected components (i.e., collateral damage around and above an overpass or bridge). Furthermore, the resulting consequences may also incur fatalities, injuries, structural damages, and monetary damages. It has severely impacted the repair and/or replacement costs of the affected structures. Such accidents and consequences have been observed at a national level and could be reduced with a proper implementation of an overheight sensing system to prevent them from happening as often. This paper introduces the design, prototype, and implementation of a low power sensor network to monitor and characterize vehicle height and other characteristics in real time, thus alerting overheight vehicles well in advance of a possible collision. Full article
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Perspective
Water Infrastructure Asset Management Is Evolving
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060090 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Infrastructure Asset Management (IAM) is the process by which decisions are made and resources allocated to ensure organisational or societal assets continue to deliver, as required. IAM is an evolving field. We discuss this evolution and present our perspectives on the future direction [...] Read more.
Infrastructure Asset Management (IAM) is the process by which decisions are made and resources allocated to ensure organisational or societal assets continue to deliver, as required. IAM is an evolving field. We discuss this evolution and present our perspectives on the future direction of IAM. IAM was born as a response to the poor state of maintenance of infrastructure, largely due to lack of resources, and emphasizes the need to prioritize maintenance and renewal using risk-based approaches. The demands on IAM have also continued to evolve as asset systems have become more complex, with multifunctionality, adaptative capacity and nature-based infrastructure, all issues that IAM must now consider. These challenges underpin the changing context of Water Infrastructure Asset Management (WIAM) and the opportunity for WIAM to harness new technical developments from other IAM domains. WIAM will need to continue to evolve, responding to these challenges and take advantage of these opportunities through research and application in collaboration with a relevant education and capacity development agenda. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Infrastructure Asset Management)
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Article
Utilizing UAVs Technology on Microscopic Traffic Naturalistic Data Acquirement
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060089 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Research into collecting and measuring reliable, accurate, and naturalistic microscopic traffic data is a fundamental aspect in road network planning scientific literature. The vehicle trajectory is one of the main variables in traffic flow theory that allows to extract information regarding microscopic traffic [...] Read more.
Research into collecting and measuring reliable, accurate, and naturalistic microscopic traffic data is a fundamental aspect in road network planning scientific literature. The vehicle trajectory is one of the main variables in traffic flow theory that allows to extract information regarding microscopic traffic flow characteristics. Several methods and techniques have been applied regarding the acquisition of vehicle trajectory. The forthcoming applications of intelligent transport systems on vehicles and infrastructure require sufficient and innovative tools to calibrate existing models on more complex situations. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are one of the most emerging technologies being used recently in the transportation field to monitor and analyze the traffic flow. The aim of this paper is to examine the use of UAVs as a tool for microscopic traffic data collection and analysis. A comprehensive guiding framework for accurate and cost-effective naturalistic traffic surveys and analysis using UAVs is proposed and presented in detail. Field experiments of acquiring vehicle trajectories on two multilane roundabouts were carried out following the proposed framework. Results of the experiment indicate the usefulness of the UAVs technology on various traffic analysis studies. The results of this study provide a practical guide regarding vehicle trajectory acquirement using UAVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Systems: Safety Modeling, Visions and Strategies)
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Article
Parametric Study on the Applicability of AASHTO LRFD for Simply Supported Reinforced Concrete Skewed Slab Bridges
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060088 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Simplified code provisions can be used for the analysis and design of straight slab bridges. However, several studies question the appropriateness of simplified procedures for skewed geometries. This paper provides practical insights to the designer regarding the effects of skewness in reinforced concrete [...] Read more.
Simplified code provisions can be used for the analysis and design of straight slab bridges. However, several studies question the appropriateness of simplified procedures for skewed geometries. This paper provides practical insights to the designer regarding the effects of skewness in reinforced concrete slab bridges by evaluating how simplified and more refined analysis procedures impact the design magnitudes and resulting reinforcement layouts. The methods used for this study are analytical and numerical case studies. Eighty case study slab bridges with varying lengths, widths, and skew angles are subjected to the AASHTO HL-93 loading. Then, the governing moments and shear forces are determined using the AASHTO LRFD simplified procedures with hand calculations, and using linear finite element analysis (LFEA). Afterwards, the reinforcement is designed according to the AASHTO LRFD design provisions. From these case studies, it is found through the LFEA that increasing skew angles result in decreasing amounts of longitudinal reinforcement and increasing amounts of transverse flexural reinforcement. Comparing the reinforcement layouts using AASHTO LRFD-based hand calculations and LFEA, we find that using LFEA reduces the total weight of steel reinforcement needed. Moreover, as the skew increases, LFEA captures increased shear forces at the obtuse corner that AASHTO LRFD does not. In conclusion, it is preferable to design the reinforcement of skewed reinforced concrete slab bridges using LFEA instead of hand calculations based on AASHTO LRFD for cost reduction and safety in terms of shear resistance in the obtuse corners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Bridge Infrastructures)
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Article
Mechanical Properties of Strengthening 5083-H111 Aluminum Alloy Plates at Elevated Temperatures
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060087 - 14 Jun 2021
Viewed by 512
Abstract
The use of aluminum alloys for external strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams has been capturing research interest. Exposure to harsh environmental conditions can severely impact the strengthening efficiency. This works aims to investigate the degradation in the mechanical properties of aluminum alloy [...] Read more.
The use of aluminum alloys for external strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams has been capturing research interest. Exposure to harsh environmental conditions can severely impact the strengthening efficiency. This works aims to investigate the degradation in the mechanical properties of aluminum alloy AA 5083 plates when exposed to temperatures ranging from 25 to 300 °C. Quasi-static Isothermal tensile experiments were conducted at different temperatures. It was observed from the experimental results that the yield strength remained constant in the temperature range of 25–150 °C before starting to drop beyond 150 °C, with a total reduction of ≈ 40% at 300 °C. The elastic modulus was temperature sensitive with about 25% reduction at 200 °C before experiencing a significant and pronounced reduction at 300 °C. The percentage drops in stiffness and yield strength at 300 °C were 62.8% and 38%, respectively. In addition, the Mechanical Threshold Strength Model (MTS) parameters were established to capture the yield strength temperature dependence. Two analytical models were developed based on the experimental results. Both models can reasonably predict the elastic modulus and yield strength of AA 5083 plates as a function of temperature. It was concluded that AA plates should be properly insulated when used as externally bonded reinforcement to strengthen RC beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inspection, Assessment and Retrofit of Transport Infrastructure)
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Article
Cement-Bonded Particleboards with Banana Pseudostem Waste: Physical Performance and Bio-Susceptibility
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060086 - 13 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 488
Abstract
This article evaluates the relevant properties of cement-bonded particleboards (CBPB) made with a portion of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) particles replaced with an agricultural waste, banana pseudostem (Musa sp.). The industrial production of CBPB was simulated in the laboratory based [...] Read more.
This article evaluates the relevant properties of cement-bonded particleboards (CBPB) made with a portion of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) particles replaced with an agricultural waste, banana pseudostem (Musa sp.). The industrial production of CBPB was simulated in the laboratory based on a reference composition defined by a manufacturing company. Test specimens were produced assuming 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% partial replacement of wood particles with banana pseudostem fibres. Some physical properties (bulk density, thermal conductivity, and dimensional stability) and the mould susceptibility of the different variables were assessed. Results show that the thermal conductivity of the boards increased with the banana fibre proportion and ranged between 0.233 W/(m.K) and 0.279 W/(m.K). The bulk density values generally increased with the banana fibre proportion and ranged between 1754–1995 kg/m3, being the highest value obtained for B50 (equal weight proportion of wood particles and banana fibres). Specimens with a higher percentage of banana fibres have reduced thickness resulting from swelling, ranging between 0.38% and 0.11% (for 0% and 75% of banana fibres, respectively). CBPBs with unsanded surfaces seem to be unsusceptible to mould development, whereas those with sanded surfaces, simulating wearing, show some bio-susceptibility. Mould development increases with the proportion of banana fibre. The results highlight the need for regular maintenance of the particleboards, thus avoiding surface wear over time and resulting in the exposure of the wood particles and/or banana fibres to the outside environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durability and Degradability of Construction Materials)
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Article
Understanding Traffic Congestion via Network Analysis, Agent Modeling, and the Trajectory of Urban Expansion: A Coastal City Case
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060085 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 576
Abstract
The study of patterns of urban mobility is of utter importance for city growth projection and development planning. In this paper, we analyze the topological aspects of the street network of the coastal city of Cartagena de Indias employing graph theory and spatial [...] Read more.
The study of patterns of urban mobility is of utter importance for city growth projection and development planning. In this paper, we analyze the topological aspects of the street network of the coastal city of Cartagena de Indias employing graph theory and spatial syntax tools. We find that the resulting network can be understood on the basis of 400 years of the city’s history and its peripheral location that strongly influenced and shaped the growth of the city, and that the statistical properties of the network resemble those of self-organized cities. Moreover, we study the mobility through the network using a simple agent-based model that allows us to study the level of street congestion depending on the agents’ knowledge of the traffic while they travel through the network. We found that a purely shortest-path travel scheme is not an optimal strategy and that assigning small weights to traffic avoidance schemes increases the overall performance of the agents in terms of arrival success, occupancy of the streets, and traffic accumulation. Finally, we argue that localized congestion can be only partially ascribed to topological properties of the network and that it is important to consider the decision-making capability of the agents while moving through the network to explain the emergence of traffic congestion in the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Planning Peripheral and Ultra-Peripheral Infrastructures)
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Article
Influence of Recycled Aggregates on the Mechanical Properties of Synthetic Fibers-Reinforced Masonry Mortars
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060084 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 539
Abstract
The construction sector is one of the main consumers of raw materials and generates a high volume of waste within the European Union. The search for new materials that are more sustainable and respectful of the environment has become a challenge for countries [...] Read more.
The construction sector is one of the main consumers of raw materials and generates a high volume of waste within the European Union. The search for new materials that are more sustainable and respectful of the environment has become a challenge for countries with a high degree of industrialization. In this work, a study of the most relevant properties of masonry mortars made with recycled aggregates and reinforced with synthetic fibers was carried out. Three types of aggregates were used—natural, concrete recycling and ceramic recycling—and two types of reinforcing fibers: polypropylene and polyolefin. In this way, various tests of physical-mechanical characterization and a statistical analysis of the results were carried out. It has been shown that the mortars made from aggregate recycled concrete and reinforced with polypropylene fiber are the ones with the best properties for application in the construction sector, although without improving the properties of traditional mortars made from natural aggregate and without fibers. Full article
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Article
Aspects of Vibration-Based Methods for the Prestressing Estimate in Concrete Beams with Internal Bonded or Unbonded Tendons
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060083 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 629
Abstract
The estimate of internal prestressing in concrete beams is essential for the assessment of their structural reliability. Many scholars have tackled multiple and diverse methods to estimate the measurable effects of prestressing. Among them, many experimented with dynamics-based techniques; however, these clash with [...] Read more.
The estimate of internal prestressing in concrete beams is essential for the assessment of their structural reliability. Many scholars have tackled multiple and diverse methods to estimate the measurable effects of prestressing. Among them, many experimented with dynamics-based techniques; however, these clash with the theoretical independence of the natural frequencies of the forces of internally prestressed beams. This paper examines the feasibility of a hybrid approach based on dynamic identification and the knowledge of the elastic modulus. Specifically, the author considered the effect of the axial deformation on the beam length and the weight per unit of volume. It is questioned whether the uncertainties related to the estimate of the elastic modulus and the first natural frequency yield reasonable estimates of the internal prestressing. The experimental testing of a set of full-scale concrete girders with known design prestressing supports a discussion about its practicability. The author found that the uncertainty in estimating the natural frequencies and elastic modulus significantly undermines a reliable estimate of the prestressing state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures)
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Article
Incorporation of Natural Fibres in Rendering Mortars for the Durability of Walls
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060082 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 689
Abstract
One of the main functions of renders, together with the overall aesthetic appearance of the building, is the protection of the walls against external aggressive actions, such as water, salts solutions, erosion, and mechanical impacts. However, some anomalies of renders may drastically hinder [...] Read more.
One of the main functions of renders, together with the overall aesthetic appearance of the building, is the protection of the walls against external aggressive actions, such as water, salts solutions, erosion, and mechanical impacts. However, some anomalies of renders may drastically hinder their protection ability. In fact, cracking, high water permeability, and loss of adherence to the substrate of renders limit their barrier effect and favour the exposure of the substrate to external actions. The incorporation of fibres in mortars is commonly pointed out to reduce their cracking susceptibility, due to the probable enhancement in tensile strength and ductility of the composite. The use of lime in substitution of the part of the cement binder is seen as a method to reduce the modulus of elasticity and therefore enhance the resistance to cracking due to drying shrinkage. Therefore, this study investigates the wall protection-related properties of natural fibre-reinforced renders with cement-lime as a binary binder at 1:1:6 volumetric ratio. With this purpose, wool, coir, and flax fibres are used at 20% by total mortar volume and the water behaviour, cracking susceptibility, and adherence to the substrate of the mortars are assessed. Specifically, the water absorption by capillarity, drying rates, permeability to water under pressure, adherence strength, and shrinkage are evaluated. In order to evaluate the renders’ durability and therefore the durability of the protection to the walls, an artificial accelerated ageing test is performed based on heating-freezing and humidification-freezing cycles. The results indicate that the fibres’ addition reduced the shrinkage and modulus of elasticity of the mortars, which suggests lower susceptibility to cracking. The addition of fibres in mortars seemed to slightly affect their water performance and only at early ages. From the results, it was concluded that the adherence strength is not affected by the fibres’ incorporation. The fibres seem also to reduce the impacts of the ageing cycles on the mortar and the improvements provided by the fibres’ addition to the mortars’ performance remained after ageing when compared to the mortars without fibres, thus being a potential alternative to increase their durability. These aspects are particularly important for buildings, since they can extend their service life and promote their sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durability and Degradability of Construction Materials)
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Article
Assessment of the Effectiveness of Different Safety Measures at Tunnel Lay-Bys and Portals to Protect Occupants in Passenger Cars
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060081 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Tunnel portals and tunnel lay-bys are hazardous spots for road users. Different infrastructure safety measures are in use, but the protection level is not known. In this study the following safety measures for reducing the injury risk are investigated: angular positioned 4 m [...] Read more.
Tunnel portals and tunnel lay-bys are hazardous spots for road users. Different infrastructure safety measures are in use, but the protection level is not known. In this study the following safety measures for reducing the injury risk are investigated: angular positioned 4 m and 8 m concrete barrier, crash cushion Alpina F1-50 and Alpina <prototype> crash cushion. A passenger car equipped with a data acquisition unit is accelerated to 100 km/h and impacts the safety measure. The assessment of the latter is based on the EN 1317 criteria, specifically the Acceleration Severity Index (ASI), Theoretical Head Impact Velocity (THIV). Further assessment criteria are related to intrusions into the passenger compartment and post-crash motion. The best result in terms of ASI and THIV was achieved by the 8 m (ASI: 1.6, THIV: 30 km/h) concrete barrier. The crash cushion Alpina <prototype> showed good results for the ASI (1.8) but the THIV (57 km/h) was less satisfactory, while the angular positioned 4 m concrete barrier (ASI: 2.9, THIV: 53 km/h) and the crash cushion Alpina F1-50 (ASI: 3.3, THIV: 74 km/h) performed worst. Even though some of the measures showed good results, no protection measure tested currently complies with all the assessment criteria used. Full article
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Article
BAT Algorithm-Based ANN to Predict the Compressive Strength of Concrete—A Comparative Study
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060080 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 788
Abstract
The number of effective factors and their nonlinear behaviour—mainly the nonlinear effect of the factors on concrete properties—has led researchers to employ complex models such as artificial neural networks (ANNs). The compressive strength is certainly a prominent characteristic for design and analysis of [...] Read more.
The number of effective factors and their nonlinear behaviour—mainly the nonlinear effect of the factors on concrete properties—has led researchers to employ complex models such as artificial neural networks (ANNs). The compressive strength is certainly a prominent characteristic for design and analysis of concrete structures. In this paper, 1030 concrete samples from literature are considered to model accurately and efficiently the compressive strength. To this aim, a Feed-Forward (FF) neural network is employed to model the compressive strength based on eight different factors. More in detail, the parameters of the ANN are learned using the bat algorithm (BAT). The resulting optimized model is thus validated by comparative analyses towards ANNs optimized with a genetic algorithm (GA) and Teaching-Learning-Based-Optimization (TLBO), as well as a multi-linear regression model, and four compressive strength models proposed in literature. The results indicate that the BAT-optimized ANN is more accurate in estimating the compressive strength of concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Building Materials and Structures)
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Article
Impact of Incorporating NIR Reflective Pigments in Finishing Coatings of ETICS
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060079 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Near-infrared (NIR) reflective materials are being developed for mitigating building cooling needs. Their use contributes to broadening the range of colours, responding to the urban aesthetic demand without compromising the building performance. Despite the increase in NIR reflective pigments investigation, there is still [...] Read more.
Near-infrared (NIR) reflective materials are being developed for mitigating building cooling needs. Their use contributes to broadening the range of colours, responding to the urban aesthetic demand without compromising the building performance. Despite the increase in NIR reflective pigments investigation, there is still a knowledge gap in their applicability, impact, and durability in multilayer finishing coatings of External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS). Hence, the main goal of this work consists of evaluating the impact of incorporating NIR reflective pigments (NRP) in the solar reflectance of the surface layer of ETICS, without affecting the colour perception, as well as their influence on the colour durability and surface temperature. As such, colour, solar reflectance, and surface temperature were monitored for 2 years in dark-coloured specimens of ETICS, with and without NRP and a primer layer. It was confirmed that the main contribution of NRP is the increase of solar reflectance and, consequently, the decrease in surface temperature, especially for high exterior temperatures (around 30 °C). Moreover, these pigments highly increase the NIR reflectance without affecting the visible colour. In addition, they contribute to maintaining the colour characteristics. The application of primer increased the surface temperature, especially for higher exterior temperatures. However, it contributes to a lower colour difference and solar reflectance variation, which is an important achievement for durability purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durability and Degradability of Construction Materials)
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Article
Use of Machine Learning Algorithms to Predict Subgrade Resilient Modulus
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060078 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Modern machine learning methods, such as tree ensembles, have recently become extremely popular due to their versatility and scalability in handling heterogeneous data and have been successfully applied across a wide range of domains. In this study, two widely applied tree ensemble methods, [...] Read more.
Modern machine learning methods, such as tree ensembles, have recently become extremely popular due to their versatility and scalability in handling heterogeneous data and have been successfully applied across a wide range of domains. In this study, two widely applied tree ensemble methods, i.e., random forest (parallel ensemble) and gradient boosting (sequential ensemble), were investigated to predict resilient modulus, using routinely collected soil properties. Laboratory test data on sandy soils from nine borrow pits in Georgia were used for model training and testing. For comparison purposes, the two tree ensemble methods were evaluated against a regression tree model and a multiple linear regression model, demonstrating their superior performance. The results revealed that a single tree model generally suffers from high variance, while providing a similar performance to the traditional multiple linear regression model. By leveraging a collection of trees, both tree ensemble methods, Random Forest and eXtreme Gradient Boosting, significantly reduced variance and improved prediction accuracy, with the eXtreme Gradient Boosting being the best model, with an R2 of 0.95 on the test dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Geotechnical Engineering)
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