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Safety, Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 16 articles

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Article
The Impact of the Implementation of Safety Measures on Frontline Workers’ Safety Accountability: A Saudi Arabian Case Study of a Well Intervention Business Model
Safety 2022, 8(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040082 (registering DOI) - 09 Dec 2022
Abstract
Even in the best-case scenarios, working in the energy sector is tough because of the numerous possible risks that can arise during routine tasks. Therefore, the top priority of firms’ management is their responsibilities for their employees’ safety as they undertake various roles. [...] Read more.
Even in the best-case scenarios, working in the energy sector is tough because of the numerous possible risks that can arise during routine tasks. Therefore, the top priority of firms’ management is their responsibilities for their employees’ safety as they undertake various roles. In this study, the researchers investigated the effect of safety measures on the safety accountability (SA) of the Saudi Arabian Aramco Company’s frontline workers. The researchers used a quantitative approach and collected data through a survey questionnaire. We applied a random sampling technique to target the company’s frontline workers. Initially, the researchers distributed 450 questionnaires and received back 242 valid samples. This represented a 53% response rate. Next, the researchers applied Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to assess the directions of the hypothesized paths. This study’s findings demonstrate that safety policy (SP), safety training (ST), safety communication (SC), safety commitment (SCT) and safety incentives (SIs) have positive and significant effects on frontline workers’ safety accountability (SA). In addition, this study’s findings provide guidelines to policy makers, government authorities and company heads to implement further initiatives that adopt precautionary and safety measures to protect their frontline workers’ lives. Further, this study’s findings show the benefits of opening avenues of research to concentrate on safety measures such SP, ST, SC, SCT and SIs in order to create the frontline workers’ responsibilities for safety accountability (SA). Finally, the empirical evidence, which the researchers obtained from the Aramco Company’s frontline workers, adds to the depth of knowledge on this subject; validates the environmental science and management literature; and provides road maps for other companies to investigate safety challenges Full article
Article
Impact of Temporary Browsing Restrictions on Drivers’ Situation Awareness When Interacting with In-Vehicle Infotainment Systems
Safety 2022, 8(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040081 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 78
Abstract
Looking away from the road during a task degrades situation awareness of potential hazards. Long glances back to the road rebuild this awareness and are thought to be critical for maintaining good vehicle control and recognizing conflicts. To further investigate the importance of [...] Read more.
Looking away from the road during a task degrades situation awareness of potential hazards. Long glances back to the road rebuild this awareness and are thought to be critical for maintaining good vehicle control and recognizing conflicts. To further investigate the importance of rebuilding situation awareness, a controlled test-track study was performed that evaluated drivers’ hazard awareness and response performance to a surprise event after completing a task that involved pausing partway through it to look back at the road. Thirty-two drivers completed a visual-manual infotainment system secondary task. Half of the drivers were instructed to pause their browsing mid-task, while the others were not. While the task was being performed, a lead vehicle activated its hazard lights. It then unexpectedly dropped a fake muffler once drivers completed the task. Drivers’ visual attention to the road and their ability to respond to the muffler were measured. The drivers that paused their browsing were more aware of the lead vehicle’s hazard lights, showed less surprise to the dropped muffler, and executed more measured avoidance maneuvers compared to the drivers that did not pause their browsing. These findings suggest that drivers’ situation awareness can be better maintained when task interactions are paced, allowing for longer monitoring of the environment. Mechanisms that encourage drivers to take restorative on-road glances during extended browsing may be a key aspect of an overall approach to mitigating driver distraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Factors in Road Safety and Mobility)
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Article
Wind Impact Assessment of a Sour Gas Release in an Offshore Platform
Safety 2022, 8(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040080 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 152
Abstract
Complex installations that involve dangerous substances, such as oil and gas or nuclear plants, must mandatorily undergo a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) according to current regulations. This requires, among others, the simulation of hundreds of accidental scenarios, which are typically carried out using [...] Read more.
Complex installations that involve dangerous substances, such as oil and gas or nuclear plants, must mandatorily undergo a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) according to current regulations. This requires, among others, the simulation of hundreds of accidental scenarios, which are typically carried out using empirical tools due to their fast response. Nonetheless, since they are not able to guarantee sufficient accuracy, especially when complex geometries are involved, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are increasingly used. In this work, a high-pressure accidental release of a sour gas (CH4-H2S) in an offshore platform under several wind conditions is considered. A methodology used to perform a wind sensitivity analysis via CFD, while avoiding high computational costs, is presented. The wind intensity impact on some risk-related figures of merit, such as the high lethality or irreversible injuries areas, is discussed in relation to the flammability and toxicity limits of the released mixture. The results show that even a very low amount of H2S in the released mixture can strongly affect the threat zones. A progressive decrease in the toxic and flammable volumes in the platform is observed as the wind velocity increases; nonetheless, a saturation effect appears in high wind speed scenarios. Full article
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Article
Dynamic Failure Risk Assessment of Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation Plant: An Industrial Case Study
Safety 2022, 8(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040079 - 04 Dec 2022
Viewed by 192
Abstract
Due to the growing scarcity of water resources, wastewater reuse has become one of the most effective solutions for industrial consumption. However, various factors can detrimentally affect the performance of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which is considered a risk of not fulfilling [...] Read more.
Due to the growing scarcity of water resources, wastewater reuse has become one of the most effective solutions for industrial consumption. However, various factors can detrimentally affect the performance of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which is considered a risk of not fulfilling the effluent requirements. Thus, to ensure the quality of treated wastewater, it is essential to analyze system failure causes and their potential outcomes and mitigation measures through a systematic dynamic risk assessment approach. This work shows how a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) can be effectively used in this context. Like the conventional Bayesian network (BN), the DBN can capture complex interactions between failure contributory factors. Additionally, it can forecast the upcoming failure likelihood using a prediction inference. This proposed methodology was applied to a WWTP of the Moorchekhort Industrial Complex (MIC), located in the center of Iran. A total of 15 years’ time frame (2016–2030) has been considered in this work. The first six years’ data have been used to develop the DBN model and to identify the crucial risk factors that are further used to reduce the risk in the remaining nine years. The risk increased from 21% to 42% in 2016–2021. Applying the proposed risk mitigation measures can decrease the failure risk from 33% to 9% in 2022–2030. The proposed model showed the capability of the DBN in risk management of a WWTP system which can help WWTPs’ managers and operators achieve better performance for higher reclaimed water quality. Full article
Article
The Burden of Work-Related Diseases and Injuries among Agriculturists: A Three-Year Retrospective Study in Thailand
Safety 2022, 8(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040078 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 289
Abstract
This study investigated the incidence of work-related diseases and injuries among cultivating farmers in Thailand by conducting a three-year retrospective study with 207,465 farmers from Roi-Et province and 154,478 farmers from Udon Thani province. Health data were collected from the hospital information systems [...] Read more.
This study investigated the incidence of work-related diseases and injuries among cultivating farmers in Thailand by conducting a three-year retrospective study with 207,465 farmers from Roi-Et province and 154,478 farmers from Udon Thani province. Health data were collected from the hospital information systems (HIS) of Roi-Et and Udon Thani provinces for a three-year period (2014–2016). We used the ICD-10 classification codes for diseases and injuries to analyse the incidence rates per 100,000 farmers. The number of cases that visited health centres were 53,794 in Udon Thani (34.82%) and 77,438 in Roi-Et (37.32%). The top five morbidity rates in Roi-Et and Udon Thani were work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), followed by injuries, infectious disease, skin disease, and lung disease. The incidence of diseases and injuries found in Roi-Et, a more cultivating-agriculture-based province, was higher than that found in Udon Thani province. WMSDs were the greatest health concern in regard to cultivating activities. Infectious and lung diseases might have also been related to the cultivating activities, which warrants further studies. Our findings highlight an urgent need for targeted occupational health services, and health and safety measures among cultivating farmers in both provinces. Regular monitoring and surveillance programmes for cultivating farmers need to be in place, at the provincial level, to mitigate risk and protect the health and well-being of the farmers. Full article
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Article
How Did COVID-19 Pandemic Impact Safety Performance on a Construction Project? A Case Study Comparing Pre and Post COVID-19 Influence on Safety at an Australian Construction Site
Safety 2022, 8(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040077 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 487
Abstract
COVID-19 had a significant impact on construction projects due to labor shortages and COVID-19 restrictions, yet little is known about the impact it had on construction safety. To address this gap, an Australian construction project was selected to study the impact of COVID-19 [...] Read more.
COVID-19 had a significant impact on construction projects due to labor shortages and COVID-19 restrictions, yet little is known about the impact it had on construction safety. To address this gap, an Australian construction project was selected to study the impact of COVID-19 on safety performance, safety climate and safety leadership. The study collected data from safety climate surveys, leading and lagging safety indicators and used linear regression to compare safety performance pre and post the onset of COVID-19. Our results showed after the onset of COVID-19 there was a significant reduction (Pr > F at 0.05%) in incident rate, an improvement in supervisor safety leadership and safety climate, and satisfaction with organisational communication. The study identified the increase level of safety awareness due to COVID-19 did not result in an increase in the level of engagement in safety leadership. Interestingly, participation in the safety leadership activities did not improve until a change of Project Manager occurred. The study determined leaders who establish a positive safety climate within a project could negate the safety performance impact of COVID-19. The study confirms the importance of site safety leadership in maintaining engagement in risk management and the value of focused safety communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Construction and Project Management)
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Article
The Job Performance of Fly-In-Fly-Out Workers in Industrial Enterprises (on the Example of Oil and Gas Production, Diamond Mining Production, and Construction)
Safety 2022, 8(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040076 - 16 Nov 2022
Viewed by 320
Abstract
With high health requirements for FIFO work at industry, workers may experience adverse changes in psychological well-being and health status. This makes it relevant when developing the job performance model to rely on considering not only the effectiveness by employees but also their [...] Read more.
With high health requirements for FIFO work at industry, workers may experience adverse changes in psychological well-being and health status. This makes it relevant when developing the job performance model to rely on considering not only the effectiveness by employees but also their psychophysiological “cost of activity”, which is not reflected in modern scientific research. This article theoretically substantiates and empirically develops a job performance typology of fly-in-fly-out workers at industrial enterprises by correlating three components: effectiveness, psychophysiological resources, and the way of accomplishing tasks. The study involved 359 fly-in-fly-out workers in oil and gas, diamond mining and construction industries with different duration of the fly-in period, operating in the South and the North of the Russian Federation. The research methods included questioning, psychophysiological instrumental testing, and psychological testing. Statistical processing was carried out using the methods of descriptive statistics, two-stage cluster analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance. As a result of the study, six types of job performance of fly-in-fly-out personnel of industrial enterprises were identified. The employees at industrial enterprises of all six types of job performance correspond to their position and perform the assigned tasks, the difference in them lies in the desire to show an average or the highest possible result, as well as how much internal resources the employee spends to achieve this result and how quickly he restores them, which is expressed in terms of his state and well-being. Based on the results of these connections, measures for personnel management for industrial enterprises were proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Industrial Safety)
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Article
AgISM: A Novel Automated Tool for Monitoring Trends of Agricultural Waste Storage and Handling-Related Injuries and Fatalities Data in Real-Time
Safety 2022, 8(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040075 - 09 Nov 2022
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Availability of summarized occupational injury data is essential for establishing complete incident surveillance systems, targeting incident preventative efforts, assessing the efficacy of prevention programs, and enhancing workplace safety. There are currently limited automated injury monitoring systems for summarizing occupational injuries obtained from electronic [...] Read more.
Availability of summarized occupational injury data is essential for establishing complete incident surveillance systems, targeting incident preventative efforts, assessing the efficacy of prevention programs, and enhancing workplace safety. There are currently limited automated injury monitoring systems for summarizing occupational injuries obtained from electronic news and other sources, or for visualizing real-time data through an output platform. A “near” real-time surveillance tool could enable researchers to visualize data as it is being collected and provide a more rapid monitoring method to identify patterns in injury data. An automated data pipeline method could provide more current, consistent, and reliable information for injury surveillance systems and injury prevention purposes. Such a system could help public policy makers, epidemiologists, and injury prevention professionals spend less time and effort on classifying cases, increase confidence in the data, and respond quicker to “patterns” of specific types of incidents. Currently, injury surveillance approaches generally rely on manual coding of injury data, resulting in inconsistencies in classification of incident, and contributing factors and considerable delays in publishing results. This study focused on developing and testing a more automated coding methodology for use with incident narratives for further data mining, analysis, and interpretation. The concept was tested on 491 documented fatalities or serious injuries involving agricultural waste storage, handling, and transport operations. The approach provided current and real-time summarization of incident data along with data analysis and visualization by using a standard questionnaire for record-keeping, Python data frames, and the MySQL database. Findings in this study provided evidence for the reliability of classifying injury news clipping narratives into external real-time incident categories. Results showed a very encouraging performance for the chosen model to monitor injury and fatality incidents with efficiency, simplicity, data quality, timeliness, and a consistent coding process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Safety New Challenges for Industry)
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Article
Modeling the Impact of Driving Styles on Crash Severity Level Using SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Data
Safety 2022, 8(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040074 - 05 Nov 2022
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Previous studies have examined driving styles and how they are associated with crash risks relying on self-report questionnaires to categorize respondents based on pre-defined driving styles. Naturalistic driving studies provide a unique opportunity to examine this relationship differently. The current study aimed to [...] Read more.
Previous studies have examined driving styles and how they are associated with crash risks relying on self-report questionnaires to categorize respondents based on pre-defined driving styles. Naturalistic driving studies provide a unique opportunity to examine this relationship differently. The current study aimed to study how driving styles, derived from real-road driving, may relate to crash severity. To study the relationship, this study retrieved safety critical events (SCEs) from the SHRP 2 database and adopted joint modelling of the number of the aggregated crash severity levels (crash vs. non-crash) using the Diagonal Inflated Bivariate Poisson (DIBP) model. Variables examined included driving styles and various driver characteristics. Among driving styles examined, styles of maintenance of lower speeds and more adaptive responses to driving conditions were associated with fewer crashes given an SCE occurred. Longer driving experiences, more miles driven last year, and being female also reduced the number of crashes. Interestingly, older drivers were associated with both an increased number of crashes and increased number of non-crash SCEs. Future work may leverage more variables from the SHRP 2 database and widen the scope to examine different traffic conditions for a more complete picture of driving styles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Factors in Road Safety and Mobility)
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Article
Predictors of Simulator Sickness Provocation in a Driving Simulator Operating in Autonomous Mode
Safety 2022, 8(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040073 - 05 Nov 2022
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Highly autonomous vehicles (HAV) have the potential of improving road safety and providing alternative transportation options. Given the novelty of HAVs, high-fidelity driving simulators operating in an autonomous mode are a great way to expose transportation users to HAV prior to HAV adoption. [...] Read more.
Highly autonomous vehicles (HAV) have the potential of improving road safety and providing alternative transportation options. Given the novelty of HAVs, high-fidelity driving simulators operating in an autonomous mode are a great way to expose transportation users to HAV prior to HAV adoption. In order to avoid the undesirable effects of simulator sickness, it is important to examine whether factors such as age, sex, visual processing speed, and exposure to acclimation scenario predict simulator sickness in driving simulator experiments designed to replicate the HAV experience. This study identified predictors of simulator sickness provocation across the lifespan (N = 210). Multiple stepwise backward regressions identified that slower visual processing speed predicts the Nausea and Dizziness domain with age not predicting any domains. Neither sex, nor exposure to an acclimation scenario predicted any of the four domains of simulator sickness provocation, namely Queasiness, Nausea, Dizziness, and Sweatiness. No attrition occurred in the study due to simulator sickness and thus the study suggests that high-fidelity driving simulator may be a viable way to introduce drivers across the lifespan to HAV, a strategy that may enhance future HAV acceptance and adoption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vehicle Safety and Automated Driving)
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Article
Development of a Human Factors Approach to Equine-Related Human Accident Analysis, and Preliminarily Evaluation with Simulated Incidents
Safety 2022, 8(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040072 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 647
Abstract
Accident analysis frameworks such as Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) are widely used in high-risk industries to determine risk mitigation strategies. In comparison, equestrianism which is classified high-risk due to human-horse interactions at work, sport, and social activities, rarely utilizes accident [...] Read more.
Accident analysis frameworks such as Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) are widely used in high-risk industries to determine risk mitigation strategies. In comparison, equestrianism which is classified high-risk due to human-horse interactions at work, sport, and social activities, rarely utilizes accident analysis. This study developed and tested the validity and inter-rater reliability of an equestrian-specific accident analysis framework, that included elements of human error, horse risk factors, and environmental factors. The study involved three coders who independently classified 10 simulated horse-related human accident reports with the novel Human Factors Analysis and Classification System-Equestrianism (HFACS-Eq) framework. The results demonstrated that the HFACS-Eq framework achieved moderately reliable to reliable coding percentage agreement. In addition, substantial to reliable agreement was achieved for HFACS-Eq nominal category and nano-codes levels. This study is the first step towards an equestrian industry-specific, accident analysis framework to improve industry safety. Elimination of possible bias and validation with real incident data are required before the wider application of the framework can be recommended. The study highlights organizational and procedural failures, segregating the horse as a contributing factor as well as the environment in which the human acts or makes decisions informing risk. Full article
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Article
Development and Reliability Review of an Assessment Tool to Measure Competency in the Seven Elements of the Risk Management Process: Part Two—Evaluation of the Individual Results from the RISKometric Tool
Safety 2022, 8(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040071 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 388
Abstract
This study aims to test further the RISKometric previously developed by the authors. This paper is the second of three studies: it compares individuals’ RISKometric results in the first study with their performance in a risk scenario exercise in this second study; so, [...] Read more.
This study aims to test further the RISKometric previously developed by the authors. This paper is the second of three studies: it compares individuals’ RISKometric results in the first study with their performance in a risk scenario exercise in this second study; so, providing a reliability review for the RISKometric. A risk scenario exercise was developed that required participants to individually undertake a risk management process on a realistic, potentially hazardous event involving working at heights during simultaneous operations. Two observers assessed their responses, rating the participants’ competence in each of the seven risk management process elements. Twenty-six participants individually undertook the risk scenario exercise, known as round one. Analyses found that participants’ individual competence ratings given to them (by observers) when undertaking the risk scenario exercise were strongly and positively associated with the competence ratings given to them by their peers and downline colleagues in the RISKometric in an earlier study; for each of the seven elements in this second study. This finding supports the RISKometric as a useful tool for rating the competency of individuals in the seven elements of the risk management process. Work was also undertaken in preparation for a planned future third study whereby eight participants of the original 26 were selected to individually undertake the risk scenario exercise again to determine any difference in ratings, e.g., if there was a learning effect. The analysis found no significant difference over the two rounds. Full article
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Article
Road Users’ Reports on Danger Spots: The Crowd as an Underestimated Expert?
Safety 2022, 8(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040070 - 07 Oct 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
As part of the project EDDA+ (Early Detection of Dangerous Areas in road traffic using smart data), a web-based crowdsourcing platform has been launched on which road users can report danger spots they face in everyday traffic. Whereas official police collision data can [...] Read more.
As part of the project EDDA+ (Early Detection of Dangerous Areas in road traffic using smart data), a web-based crowdsourcing platform has been launched on which road users can report danger spots they face in everyday traffic. Whereas official police collision data can only be used reactively, these user reports are intended to warn other road users and provide road safety stakeholders with detailed information for proactive measures. Since this approach is relatively novel, the present pilot study aimed to evaluate the validity of these subjective road user reports. A quasi-randomized sample of N = 77 danger spots distributed over four major German cities was audited using a 70-item objective road safety deficit inventory to identify infrastructural deficits. Based on these items, an overall rating of objective hazardousness for each danger spot was derived. In more than half of the audited danger spots, infrastructural deficits were identified in the audit (=confirmed hazard). In another quarter of audited dangers spots, the reported hazard could not be identified without any doubt due to a lack of infrastructural deficit or detailed information about the nature of the hazard (=uncertain, no certain match between audit and report). Our analysis further revealed that an increased number of road user interactions for the respective danger spot yielded a higher likelihood of confirmation of a danger spot’s hazardousness. Descriptively, pedestrians and bicyclists were most often mentioned as exposed to danger, with the most prevalent nature of danger being areas with poor visibility and misconduct by drivers. The results were blended with police collision data in the next step. We did not find a significant relationship between our danger spots’ rating and the number of collisions at the respective spot. Our results indicate that reports of danger spots and the increased user related activity can serve as an indicator for the early detection of road traffic hazards. Full article
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Article
Numerical Calculation and Analysis of Water Dump Distribution Out of the Belly Tanks of Firefighting Helicopters
Safety 2022, 8(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040069 - 03 Oct 2022
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Helicopters are more and more widely used for water dumping in fire extinguishing operations nowadays. Increasing attention is being paid to improving helicopter firefighting efficiency. Water distribution onto the ground from the helicopter tank is a key reference target to evaluate firefighting efficiency. [...] Read more.
Helicopters are more and more widely used for water dumping in fire extinguishing operations nowadays. Increasing attention is being paid to improving helicopter firefighting efficiency. Water distribution onto the ground from the helicopter tank is a key reference target to evaluate firefighting efficiency. Numerical simulations and calculations were carried out concerning water dumping out of the belly tank of a helicopter using the VOF (Volume of Fluent Model) model and mesh adaptation in ANSYS Fluent, and the effects of two parameters, the height of the tank above the ground and the wind speed, on the wake flow and water distribution were discussed. The results showed that for forward flight, the higher the forward flight speed, the less the average water depth on the ground. Similar results were obtained for flight height. The average water depth was one order of magnitude less than in the cases of the corresponding hovering helicopter for a given wind speed. As for hovering flight, the higher the wind speed, the less the average water depth on the ground. The simulation results were basically consistent with the conclusions of water dump tests of fire-fighting equipment carried by helicopters. For example, when the helicopter flew at a forward flight speed of 15 m/s and the tank bottom was 30 m above the ground, the area covered by the dumped water would be 337.5 m2, and the average water depth accumulated per square meter would be 0.3 cm. This result was close to the 0.34 cm obtained under Hayden Biggs’s test condition with a forward flight speed of 70 km/h and a height above the ground of 24 m. Full article
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Article
Towards a New Way of Understanding the Resilience of Socio-Technical Systems: The Safety Fractal Analysis Method Evaluated
Safety 2022, 8(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040068 - 29 Sep 2022
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Despite the systems approach to accident analysis being the dominant research paradigm and the concept of SMS being introduced in high-risk industries already for several years, accident investigation practice is still poor in analysing the basic elements that compose a safety management system [...] Read more.
Despite the systems approach to accident analysis being the dominant research paradigm and the concept of SMS being introduced in high-risk industries already for several years, accident investigation practice is still poor in analysing the basic elements that compose a safety management system (SMS) and in embracing system theory. In search of a systemic method for accident analysis that is easily applicable and less resource demanding than the actual methods, Accou and Reniers (2019) developed the SAfety FRactal ANalysis (SAFRAN) method. The method, which is based on the principles of an SMS with resilience as the explicit safety strategy, aims at finding a good balance between examining the complexity of a socio-technical system and making optimal use of limited resources and people; factors that often restrict the possibility for in-depth analysis of accidents. A series of practical tests, often involving active accident investigators, made it possible to examine and validate the SAFRAN method against the criteria Underwood (2013) developed to evaluate systemic accident analysis methods. Based on the performed evaluation, which includes elements related to the development of the method as well as system approach and usability characteristics, the study concludes that, when it comes to applying a systems approach to accident analysis and with the aim of creating more sustainable and resilient performance, the current investigation practice could gain from having the SAFRAN method as part of the investigation toolkit. Full article
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Article
Volunteer Food Handlers’ Safety Knowledge and Practices in Implementing National School Nutrition Programme in Gauteng North District, South Africa
Safety 2022, 8(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8040067 - 23 Sep 2022
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Volunteer food handlers (VFHs) working in school feeding programmes contribute immensely to the safety of food served to the school learners. However, their level of knowledge and practice of safe food handling is questionable. This study investigated food safety knowledge and practices of [...] Read more.
Volunteer food handlers (VFHs) working in school feeding programmes contribute immensely to the safety of food served to the school learners. However, their level of knowledge and practice of safe food handling is questionable. This study investigated food safety knowledge and practices of VFHs working for the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) in Gauteng North District, South Africa. This was a descriptive quantitative study in which data were obtained using a standard structured questionnaire. A total of 115 VFHs participated in the study. Most of the VFHs (n = 84, 73.0%) had secondary education with working experience of between 1 to 12 months. Although a high level of knowledge on food safety was demonstrated by the VFHs, this did not fully translate into safe food handling practices. The new VFH recruits were 66% more likely to wear protective clothing than the rest (OR: 0.34, 95%CI: 0.12–0.91, p = 0.033). Women were 90% more likely to wear aprons than men (OR = 0.11; 95 CI: 0.03–0.45; p = 0.002). In this study, VFHs demonstrated adequate levels of knowledge on food safety. Lack of facilities contributed to VFH non-compliance to safe food handling practices. Thus, there is a need to further support VFHs to comply with recommended safe food handling practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosafety)
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