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Open AccessArticle

Third-Order Nonlinear Spectrum of GaN under Femtosecond-Pulse Excitation from the Visible to the Near Infrared

1
São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo PO Box 369, 13561-970 São Carlos, SP, Brazil
2
Institute of Physics, Federal University of Uberlândia, PO Box 593, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG, Brazil
3
Institute of Semiconductor Technology and Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology LENA, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Photonics 2019, 6(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics6020069
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 15 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Optical Materials and Devices)
Gallium nitride (GaN) has been established as a promising candidate for integrated electro-optic and photonic devices, aiming at applications from optical switching to signal processing. Studies of its optical nonlinearities, however, lack spectral coverage, especially in the telecommunications range. In this study, we measured the two-photon absorption coefficient (β) and the nonlinear index of refraction (n2) of GaN from the visible to the near-infrared by using femtosecond laser pulses. We observed an increase of β from (1.0 ± 0.2) to (2.9 ± 0.6) ×10−11 m/W as the photon energy approached the band gap from 1.77 up to 2.25 eV (700–550 nm), while n2 varied from (90 ± 30) ×10−20 up to (265 ± 80) ×10−20 m2/W within a broad spectral range, from 0.80 up to 2.25 eV (1550–550 nm). The results were modeled by applying a theory based on the second-order perturbation theory and the Kramers-Kronig relationship for direct-gap semiconductors, which are important for the development of GaN-based nonlinear photonic devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: gallium nitride; nonlinear optics; nonlinear spectroscopy; femtosecond laser gallium nitride; nonlinear optics; nonlinear spectroscopy; femtosecond laser
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Almeida, G.F.B.; Santos, S.N.C.; Siqueira, J.P.; Dipold, J.; Voss, T.; Mendonça, C.R. Third-Order Nonlinear Spectrum of GaN under Femtosecond-Pulse Excitation from the Visible to the Near Infrared. Photonics 2019, 6, 69.

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