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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Spinal Manipulation on the Electrophysiological and Metabolic Properties of the Tibialis Anterior Muscle

1
Centre for Chiropractic Research, New Zealand College of Chiropractic, Auckland 1060, New Zealand
2
Faculty of Health & Environmental Sciences, Health & Rehabilitation Research Institute, AUT University, Auckland 0627, New Zealand
3
Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220, Denmark
4
Department of Informatics, King’s College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK
5
Faculté de Médecine, Université de Kindu, Kindu, Congo
6
Faculty of Rehabilitation and Allied Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad 46000, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040548
Received: 11 November 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comprehensive Clinical Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation)
There is growing evidence showing that spinal manipulation increases muscle strength in healthy individuals as well as in people with some musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. However, the underlying mechanism by which spinal manipulation changes muscle strength is less clear. This study aimed to assess the effects of a single spinal manipulation session on the electrophysiological and metabolic properties of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) of the ankle dorsiflexors, high-density electromyography (HDsEMG), intramuscular EMG, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were recorded from the TA muscle in 25 participants with low level recurring spinal dysfunction using a randomized controlled crossover design. The following outcomes: motor unit discharge rate (MUDR), strength (force at MVC), muscle conduction velocity (CV), relative changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin were assessed pre and post a spinal manipulation intervention and passive movement control. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess within and between-group differences. Following the spinal manipulation intervention, there was a significant increase in MVC (p = 0.02; avg 18.87 ± 28.35%) and a significant increase in CV in both the isometric steady-state (10% of MVC) contractions (p < 0.01; avg 22.11 ± 11.69%) and during the isometric ramp (10% of MVC) contractions (p < 0.01; avg 4.52 ± 4.58%) compared to the control intervention. There were no other significant findings. The observed TA strength and CV increase, without changes in MUDR, suggests that the strength changes observed following spinal manipulation are, in part, due to increased recruitment of larger, higher threshold motor units. Further research needs to investigate the longer term and potential functional effects of spinal manipulation in various patients who may benefit from improved muscle function and greater motor unit recruitment. View Full-Text
Keywords: spinal manipulation; maximum voluntary contraction; conduction velocity; near-infrared spectroscopy spinal manipulation; maximum voluntary contraction; conduction velocity; near-infrared spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Niazi, I.K.; Kamavuako, E.N.; Holt, K.; Janjua, T.A.M.; Kumari, N.; Amjad, I.; Haavik, H. The Effect of Spinal Manipulation on the Electrophysiological and Metabolic Properties of the Tibialis Anterior Muscle. Healthcare 2020, 8, 548. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040548

AMA Style

Niazi IK, Kamavuako EN, Holt K, Janjua TAM, Kumari N, Amjad I, Haavik H. The Effect of Spinal Manipulation on the Electrophysiological and Metabolic Properties of the Tibialis Anterior Muscle. Healthcare. 2020; 8(4):548. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040548

Chicago/Turabian Style

Niazi, Imran K.; Kamavuako, Ernest N.; Holt, Kelly; Janjua, Taha A.M.; Kumari, Nitika; Amjad, Imran; Haavik, Heidi. 2020. "The Effect of Spinal Manipulation on the Electrophysiological and Metabolic Properties of the Tibialis Anterior Muscle" Healthcare 8, no. 4: 548. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040548

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