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Healthcare, Volume 12, Issue 5 (March-1 2024) – 98 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Concussion in para athletes with vision impairment (VI) is poorly understood. Given that para athletes with VI may be more likely to sustain sport-related concussions compared to non-disabled athletes and athletes with other impairment types, there is a critical need for objective concussion incidence measures to determine their concussion injury rates and risks more accurately. This review examines the limited available evidence on concussion incidence rates across six different para sports. Prospective, sport-specific research examining concussion injury mechanisms and risk factors for athletes with VI is needed to better determine the effectiveness of the injury prevention strategies that have been introduced. In turn, this research will inform future injury prevention strategies to reduce concussion risk for athletes with VI. View this paper
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11 pages, 393 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Opt-In Vaginal Human Papillomavirus Self-Sampling: Participation Rates and Detection of High-Grade Lesions (CIN2+) among Unscreened Japanese Women Aged 30–39
by Ito Taro, Toshimichi Onuma, Tetsuji Kurokawa, Yoko Chino, Akiko Shinagawa and Yoshio Yoshida
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050599 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Cervical cancer incidence is increasing among Japanese women, which is partly attributed to low screening rates. This study examined the implementation of opt-in human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling among Japanese women aged 30–39 years who had not undergone cervical cancer screening, focusing on those [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer incidence is increasing among Japanese women, which is partly attributed to low screening rates. This study examined the implementation of opt-in human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling among Japanese women aged 30–39 years who had not undergone cervical cancer screening, focusing on those requiring preconception care. The responses to the opt-in approach and effectiveness in detecting cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse (CIN2+) were evaluated. Participants used the Evalyn® Brush for self-sampling, with HPV testing conducted using the Cobas 4800 system (version 2.2.0). Out of 3489 eligible, unscreened women from four municipalities in Fukui Prefecture, only 10.6% (370/3489) requested the self-sampling kit. Of these, 77.3% (286/370) returned the kit (HPV testing rate: 8.2% (286/3489)). The HPV positivity rate was 13.7% (39/285), yet only 61.5% (24/39) of those with positive HPV results proceeded to cytology testing. Subsequently, three cases of CIN2+ were detected (10.5/1000). While this study demonstrated a reasonable kit return rate and indicated the capability of opt-in HPV self-sampling to detect CIN2+ cases in unscreened women, the low ordering rate of kits and suboptimal compliance for follow-up cytology testing highlight significant challenges. The findings suggest the need for more effective strategies to enhance participation in cervical cancer screening programs. Full article
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14 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
Impact of Work–Life Balance on the Quality of Life of Spanish Nurses during the Sixth Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Ana María Antolí-Jover, María Adelaida Álvarez-Serrano, María Gázquez-López, Adelina Martín-Salvador, María Ángeles Pérez-Morente, Encarnación Martínez-García and Inmaculada García-García
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050598 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 666
Abstract
This study addresses the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Spanish nurses during the sixth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, assessed through the EQ-5D and EQ-VAS indices. Methods: This cross-sectional 334 study used online surveys, recruiting 305 Spanish nurses. Results: Nurses generally perceived [...] Read more.
This study addresses the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Spanish nurses during the sixth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, assessed through the EQ-5D and EQ-VAS indices. Methods: This cross-sectional 334 study used online surveys, recruiting 305 Spanish nurses. Results: Nurses generally perceived a good HRQoL. “Negative work–family interaction” is adversely associated with the EQ-VAS (β = −0.337, 95% CI [−1.733, −0.723]) and EQ-5D (β = −0.399, 95% CI [−0.021, −0.01]) indices, while “positive work–family interaction” shows a positive relationship with the EQ-VAS (β = 0.218, 95% CI [0.381, 1.759]). The presence of a “paid supportive caregiver” is positively associated with the EQ-VAS (β = 0.18, 95% CI [1.47, 12.3]) and EQ-5D (β = 0.149, 95% CI [0.004, 0.117]) indices, but a higher “number of children” is negatively linked with the EQ-5D index (β = −0.146, 95% CI [−0.061, −0.002]). In addition, living with a partner (EQ-VAS β = 0.16, 95% CI [1.094, 14.67] and EQ-5D index β = 0.174, 95% CI [0.018, 0.163]) and working a “rotating shift” (EQ-5D index β = 0.158, 95% CI [0.005, 0.098]) are positively associated. Conclusions: These findings highlight the need to comprehensively address nurses’ well-being, considering both their working conditions and their home environment, especially in crisis contexts such as the current pandemic. Full article
13 pages, 611 KiB  
Article
The Association of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy with Infant Mortality, Preterm Delivery, and Small for Gestational Age
by Dulaney A. Wilson, Julio Mateus, Emily Ash, Tanya N. Turan, Kelly J. Hunt and Angela M. Malek
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050597 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, eclampsia, and chronic hypertension (CHTN) are associated with adverse infant outcomes and disproportionately affect minoritized race/ethnicity groups. We evaluated the relationships between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and/or CHTN with infant mortality, preterm delivery (PTD), and small for gestational age [...] Read more.
Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, eclampsia, and chronic hypertension (CHTN) are associated with adverse infant outcomes and disproportionately affect minoritized race/ethnicity groups. We evaluated the relationships between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and/or CHTN with infant mortality, preterm delivery (PTD), and small for gestational age (SGA) in a statewide cohort with a diverse racial/ethnic population. All live, singleton deliveries in South Carolina (2004–2016) to mothers aged 12–49 were evaluated for adverse outcomes: infant mortality, PTD (20 to less than <37 weeks) and SGA (<10th birthweight-for-gestational-age percentile). Logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. In 666,905 deliveries, mothers had superimposed preeclampsia (HDP + CHTN; 1.0%), HDP alone (8.0%), CHTN alone (1.8%), or no hypertension (89.1%). Infant mortality risk was significantly higher in deliveries to women with superimposed preeclampsia, HDP, and CHTN compared with no hypertension (relative risk [RR] = 1.79, 1.39, and 1.48, respectively). After accounting for differing risk by race/ethnicity, deliveries to women with HDP and/or CHTN were more likely to result in PTD (RRs ranged from 3.14 to 5.25) or SGA (RRs ranged from 1.67 to 3.64). As CHTN, HDP and superimposed preeclampsia confer higher risk of adverse outcomes, prevention efforts should involve encouraging and supporting mothers in mitigating modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Full article
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13 pages, 864 KiB  
Study Protocol
Neuropsychological Stimulation Program for Children from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial
by Pablo Rodríguez-Prieto, Ian Craig Simpson, Diego Gomez-Baya, Claudia García de la Cadena, Desirée Ruiz-Aranda and Joaquín A. Ibáñez-Alfonso
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050596 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Background: Guatemala remains one of the poorest countries in Central America and suffers from high rates of social inequality and violence. In addition to the negative impact that two years without attending school has had on Guatemalan children due to the consequences of [...] Read more.
Background: Guatemala remains one of the poorest countries in Central America and suffers from high rates of social inequality and violence. In addition to the negative impact that two years without attending school has had on Guatemalan children due to the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, this unfavourable socioeconomic context poses a risk to children’s emotional and cognitive development. This work presents a protocol for implementing a cognitive and emotional stimulation program aimed at increasing the academic performance of these children and consequently improving their quality of life. Methods: The protocol proposes the implementation of a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a 24-session-long stimulation program. It targets the cognitive functions of attention, language, executive functions, and social cognition, using the digital neurorehabilitation platform NeuronUP. The participants (n = 480) will be randomly assigned to an Experimental or Control group. Pre- and post-intervention assessments will be carried out, together with a follow-up in the next academic year, in which both groups will change roles. Results will be compared for the first and second years, looking for differences in academic and cognitive performance between groups. Discussion: Mid- and long-term outcomes are still unknown, but effective interventions based on this protocol are expected to facilitate the following benefits for participants: (1) improved cognitive and emotional development; (2) improved academic performance; (3) improved well-being. We expect to create a validated neuropsychological stimulation program that could be applied in similar socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts around the world to help these children improve their life chances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Wellbeing and Health for Vulnerable Populations)
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15 pages, 967 KiB  
Systematic Review
Incidence and Risk Factors for Acute Articular Cartilage Tears in Military and Other Occupational Settings: A Systematic Review
by Kristy Robson, Rodney Pope and Robin Orr
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050595 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Damage to the articular cartilage resulting in an acute tear can lead to functional changes within the joint and increase the risk of osteoarthritis developing. There is limited understanding of the association between occupational risk factors and sustaining an acute articular cartilage tear [...] Read more.
Damage to the articular cartilage resulting in an acute tear can lead to functional changes within the joint and increase the risk of osteoarthritis developing. There is limited understanding of the association between occupational risk factors and sustaining an acute articular cartilage tear in the military and other physically demanding occupations. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate original research reporting on occupational risk factors associated with sustaining acute articular cartilage tears. Methods: A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis—Protocols was conducted and registered with the Open Science Framework. Key academic databases were searched using terms from the following concepts: risk or cause, paid occupations, and acute articular cartilage tears. Results: Of an initial 941 studies, 2 studies met the eligibility criteria, both reporting data from military contexts; only one evaluated acute articular cartilage tears in both males and females. One paper focused on articular cartilage injury within the knee and the other within the ankle joint with incidence rates being 0.2 and 0.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively. People in more physically active occupations and individuals with an above-normal body mass index were reported as being at higher risk of sustaining an acute articular cartilage tear. Conclusion: Physically demanding occupations, such as the military, may increase the risk for acute tears of the articular cartilage. However, the findings of this review indicate there is a paucity of research to underpin understanding of the injury mechanisms and occupational risk factors for acute articular cartilage tears. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health and Physical Fitness of Tactical Population)
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12 pages, 2989 KiB  
Article
Creating a Rehabilitation Sports Public Service Information Systems Using Service Design Thinking: Physical Activity Management of the Disabled after Discharge in the Republic of Korea
by Jiyoung Park, Dongheon Kang and Seon-Deok Eun
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050594 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 623
Abstract
The Republic of Korea has established an institutional framework to expedite the provision of rehabilitation sports public services to individuals with disabilities post-hospital discharge (Act on Guarantee of Right to Health and Access to Health Services for People with Disabilities in December 2017). [...] Read more.
The Republic of Korea has established an institutional framework to expedite the provision of rehabilitation sports public services to individuals with disabilities post-hospital discharge (Act on Guarantee of Right to Health and Access to Health Services for People with Disabilities in December 2017). Regrettably, this service remains non-operational to date. This study employs a service design approach to identify and develop essential elements for the effective implementation of public rehabilitation sports services in Korea. Adopting the service design method, including the empathize–define–ideate–prototype phases, co-creation activities were conducted with three teams comprising people with disabilities, caregivers, rehabilitation physicians, specialized sports instructors, facility managers, and government officials, emphasizing equitable distribution. By leveraging the experiences of people with disabilities, these teams collaboratively engaged in creative activities to formulate strategies for delivering prompt and user-friendly rehabilitation sports public services post-hospital discharge. Contributions from each team were meticulously collected and organized, incorporating diverse perspectives into the development of the Korean Rehabilitation Sports Public Service Information System (KRSPSIS). Additionally, we presented a scenario illustrating the practical application of the KRSPSIS. Through this system, we anticipate providing more efficient and convenient rehabilitation sports public services to individuals with disabilities during the critical early stages following hospital discharge. Full article
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14 pages, 686 KiB  
Review
Functionality and Usability of mHealth Apps in Patients with Peritoneal Dialysis: A Systematic Review
by Shu-Mei Chao, Chao-Kuei Pan, Ming-Ling Wang, Yu-Wen Fang and Shu-Fen Chen
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050593 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 721
Abstract
mHealth has been utilized in the care of patients with chronic kidney disease, allowing the collection of patient health-related data, offering disease-related information, enabling the tracking and recording of biochemical parameters, and enabling communication with healthcare providers in real time through applications. mHealth [...] Read more.
mHealth has been utilized in the care of patients with chronic kidney disease, allowing the collection of patient health-related data, offering disease-related information, enabling the tracking and recording of biochemical parameters, and enabling communication with healthcare providers in real time through applications. mHealth may improve the health outcomes in patients with peritoneal dialysis. This systematic review aimed to summarize evidence regarding the functionality and usability of mHealth apps in patients with peritoneal dialysis. We conducted a comprehensive literature review, searching in five databases, including CINAHL, Cochrane, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, to retrieve titles and abstracts related to peritoneal dialysis and mHealth applications for PRISMA recommendations from January 2013 to December 2023. Overall, 11 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The functionality of mHealth apps included inform, instruct, record, display, guide, remind/alert, and communicate. Most of the apps have multifunctionality. The usability was categorized into three aspects: efficiency (self-efficacy and usability), satisfaction, and effectiveness (underwent kidney transplantation and switched to hemodialysis, rehospitalization, peritonitis rate, infection rates at exit sites, mortality, fluid overload, inadequate solute clearance, biochemical values, quality of life, consumer quality index, and technology readiness). Generally, outcomes in the intervention group had better effects compared to those in the control group. Multifunctional mHealth apps show a good potential in improving the efficiency, satisfaction, and effectiveness for patients compared to traditional care. Future research should include more studies and participants to explore and verify the long-term effectiveness of mHealth apps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in E-mental Health)
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19 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Youth Are the Experts! Youth Participatory Action Research to Address the Adolescent Mental Health Crisis
by Kimberly E. Smith, Rosa Acevedo-Duran, Jennifer L. Lovell, Aliyah V. Castillo and Valeria Cardenas Pacheco
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050592 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 999
Abstract
Adolescent mental health is an urgent global public health issue. Youth participatory action research is an effective strategy to amplify youth voices and can serve as a catalyst for evidence-based action addressing the mental health crisis. To illustrate the benefits of youth participatory [...] Read more.
Adolescent mental health is an urgent global public health issue. Youth participatory action research is an effective strategy to amplify youth voices and can serve as a catalyst for evidence-based action addressing the mental health crisis. To illustrate the benefits of youth participatory action research for informing community health, we describe an ongoing collaboration with a youth council located in the central coast of California, USA. Research methods included an anonymous online self-report survey to gather information about the mental health of high school students in 2020 (n = 176) and 2022 (n = 234), 93% Latinx/Mexican American. Both surveys included a four-item patient health questionnaire to screen for depression and anxiety risk, in addition to scaled and open-ended survey questions selected by the youth leaders based on their research questions. Quantitative and qualitative results indicated a significant but small decrease in mental health risk, and a continued need for resources to access mental health support. Results led to community-based action aimed at improving local youth mental health. The interdisciplinary research team (psychology and public health) and youth leaders share reflections highlighting the innovative, empowering, and transformative impact of youth participatory action research as a tool for improving community health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Well-Being for Adolescents and Youths)
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14 pages, 1818 KiB  
Article
Influence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Intake on Sarcopenic Obesity, Visceral Obesity, and Sarcopenia in Lebanese Patients with MASLD: A Case-Control Study
by Maha Hoteit, Myriam Dagher, Nikolaos Tzenios, Najat Al Kaaki, Ghadir Rkein, Abdul Rahman Chahine, Yonna Sacre, Samer Hotayt, Rami Matar, Mahmoud Hallal, Micheal Maitar and Bilal Hotayt
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050591 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 961
Abstract
Chronic liver diseases are a major global health concern. Aims: this study investigated the links between medical, clinical, anthropometric, and dietary factors with dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) in the Lebanese population using a case-control approach to uncover factors influencing visceral obesity, sarcopenia, [...] Read more.
Chronic liver diseases are a major global health concern. Aims: this study investigated the links between medical, clinical, anthropometric, and dietary factors with dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) in the Lebanese population using a case-control approach to uncover factors influencing visceral obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity. Methods and Materials: a total of 120 participants (20–70 years old) were divided into case and control groups based on liver disease diagnosis. Patient information was gathered through a questionnaire encompassing demographics, medical history, and beverage consumption. Anthropometric and body composition data were collected in a clinical setting. Results: our findings indicated a clear association between the presence of MASLD and obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The positive association with higher body mass index and all three conditions remained consistent even when data was stratified by case and control groups. A greater proportion of MASLD patients exhibited sarcopenic obesity. Furthermore, MASLD cases showed higher consumption of sugary beverages and a reduced intake of milk and water in their diets. Conclusions: this study shed light on the health attributes and diets of the Lebanese population with liver diseases and suggested more research in this area and in a more ethnically diverse population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Nutrition Management in Healthcare)
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20 pages, 3115 KiB  
Article
Dementia Education for Workforce Excellence: Evaluation of a Novel Bichronous Approach
by Leah Macaden and Kevin Muirhead
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050590 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 880
Abstract
Dementia education and training for workforce development is becoming increasingly important in bridging knowledge gaps among health and social care practitioners in the UK and internationally. Dementia Education for Workforce Excellence (DEWE) was developed during the COVID-19 pandemic, blending both synchronous and asynchronous [...] Read more.
Dementia education and training for workforce development is becoming increasingly important in bridging knowledge gaps among health and social care practitioners in the UK and internationally. Dementia Education for Workforce Excellence (DEWE) was developed during the COVID-19 pandemic, blending both synchronous and asynchronous instruction and delivered across three different contexts: care homes, home care, and nurse education within the UK and India. This study aimed to evaluate DEWE using mixed methods with online survey data analyzed descriptively and interview data analyzed thematically. Integration of survey and interview data aimed toward a comprehensive evaluation of this novel approach for dementia workforce development. Thirty-four social care practitioners and nurse educators completed the online survey demonstrating high-level learner satisfaction, learning gains, behavioral change, and motivation to share new knowledge. Four key themes developed from the analysis of interviews (n = 9) around participants’ pursuit of new knowledge; delivery modes in DEWE; learning gains and impact of DEWE; and adaptations for future program implementation. Findings suggest DEWE is an innovative resource that promotes person- and relationship-centered dementia care across all stages of one’s dementia journey. Cultural adaptations are recommended for international delivery to ensure contextual alignment and maximum impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Palliative Care)
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12 pages, 639 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Motivational Factors of Whole Blood and Convalescent Plasma Donors during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic in Israel
by Eilat Shinar, Eli Jaffe, Zvika Orr, Beth G. Zalcman, Joseph Offenbacher, Maxim Quint, Evan Avraham Alpert, Boaz Zadok Weiss and Baruch Berzon
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050589 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Demands for whole blood (WB) and COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) donations during the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic presented unprecedented challenges for blood services throughout the world. This study aims to understand the motivating factors that drive WB and CCP donations in the context of [...] Read more.
Demands for whole blood (WB) and COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) donations during the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic presented unprecedented challenges for blood services throughout the world. This study aims to understand the motivating factors that drive WB and CCP donations in the context of the pandemic. This cross-sectional study is based on data extracted from surveys of the two volunteer donor cohorts. The findings reveal that when compared to CCP donors, WB donors were more likely to view donation as a form of social engagement (97.7% vs. 87.1%, p < 0.01), advantageous in the workplace (46.4% vs. 28.6%, p < 0.01), advantageous in their social network (58.6% vs. 47.0%, p = 0.01), and view their donation in the context of positive self-satisfaction (99% vs. 95.1%, p = 0.01). The average age of CCP donors was 7.1 years younger than those who donated WB (p < 0.01). Motivational factors were also analyzed by sex and religiosity. In conclusion, whereas both donor groups showed a high motivation to partake in these life-saving commitments, WB donors were more likely to be motivated by factors that, when better-understood and implemented in policies concerning plasma donations, may help to increase these donations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coronaviruses (CoV) and COVID-19 Pandemic)
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15 pages, 729 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Physical Activity, Performance-Related Health, and Academic Achievements in 11-to-13-Year-Old Schoolchildren in Qatar
by Souhail Hermassi, Sascha Ketelhut, Ferman Konukman, Maha Sellami, Senaid Al-Marri, Claudio R. Nigg and René Schwesig
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050588 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Age-related differences in physical activity (PA), maturity status (PHV), physical performance (PP), and academic achievement (AA) among schoolchildren in Qatar were examined. Sixty-nine students from a school in Doha were categorized into three equal (n = 23) groups: 11-year-old students (U11; male: n [...] Read more.
Age-related differences in physical activity (PA), maturity status (PHV), physical performance (PP), and academic achievement (AA) among schoolchildren in Qatar were examined. Sixty-nine students from a school in Doha were categorized into three equal (n = 23) groups: 11-year-old students (U11; male: n = 14), 12-year-old students (U12: male: n = 7), and 13-year-old students (U13: male: n = 11). The testing process comprised a medicine ball throw, Stork balance test, hand grip strength test, the T-half test (PP), GPA in Arabic, mathematics, science (AA), International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (PA), and Moore’s equations (PHV). Relevant age-related differences (p < 0.001) were identified in mathematics, science, the T-half test, maturity, and arm span. Notably, differences between adjacent age groups were evident between U11 and U12, concerning arm span, maturity, mathematics, and science, and between U12 and U13 (the T-half test, mathematics, science). Concerning AP, the performance maxima were calculated for U12 (mathematics, science) and U11 (Arabic). Regarding PP, performance maxima were only observed for U13. Except for the moderate level, the highest levels of PA were detected in U13. Maturity status and anthropometric parameters did not differ significantly between age groups. However, AA demonstrated the most notable age-related differences. Specifically, mathematics showed substantial differences between adjacent age groups. Full article
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18 pages, 1127 KiB  
Article
Personality Traits, Burnout, and Psychopathology in Healthcare Professionals in Intensive Care Units—A Moderated Analysis
by Varvara Pakou, Dimitrios Tsartsalis, Georgios Papathanakos, Elena Dragioti, Mary Gouva and Vasilios Koulouras
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050587 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
This study explored the associations between personality dimensions, burnout, and psychopathology in healthcare professionals in intensive care units (ICUs). This study further aimed to discern the differences in these relationships when considering the variables of critical care experience (less than 5 years, 5–10 [...] Read more.
This study explored the associations between personality dimensions, burnout, and psychopathology in healthcare professionals in intensive care units (ICUs). This study further aimed to discern the differences in these relationships when considering the variables of critical care experience (less than 5 years, 5–10 years, and more than 10 years), profession (nurses versus intensivists), and the urban size of the city where the ICU is located (metropolitan cities versus smaller urban cities). This cross-sectional investigation’s outcomes are based on data from 503 ICU personnel, including 155 intensivists and 348 nurses, in 31 ICU departments in Greece. Participants underwent a comprehensive assessment involving a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). To analyze the interplay among critical care experience, burnout status, and psychopathology, a moderation analysis was conducted with personality dimensions (i.e., psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism) serving as the mediator variable. Profession and the urban size of the ICU location were considered as moderators influencing these relationships. Male healthcare professionals showed higher psychoticism levels than females, aligning with prior research. Experienced nurses reported lower personal achievement, hinting at potential motivation challenges for professional growth. Psychoticism predicted high depersonalization and low personal achievement. Neuroticism and psychoticism negatively impacted ICU personnel’s mental well-being, reflected in elevated psychopathology scores and burnout status. Psychoticism appears to be the primary factor influencing burnout among the three personality dimensions, particularly affecting intensivists. In contrast, nurses are more influenced by their critical care experience on their mental health status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing Care in the ICU)
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12 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Is Interoception Deficit Linking Alexithymia and Eating Spectrum Symptoms? Study on a Non-Clinical Sample of Young Adults
by Mario Miniati, Maria Lippi, Laura Palagini, Ciro Conversano, Graziella Orrù, Angelo Gemignani and Giulio Perugi
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050586 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 898
Abstract
We investigated if interoceptive deficits could be the link between alexithymic traits and eating spectrum manifestations in a non-clinical sample. One-hundred sixty-one young adults (mean age: 23.2 ± 2.4 years) were evaluated with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the Interoceptive Accuracy Scale (IAS), [...] Read more.
We investigated if interoceptive deficits could be the link between alexithymic traits and eating spectrum manifestations in a non-clinical sample. One-hundred sixty-one young adults (mean age: 23.2 ± 2.4 years) were evaluated with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the Interoceptive Accuracy Scale (IAS), the Interoceptive Confusion Questionnaire (ICQ), and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26). Questionnaires were administered with an online procedure (Microsoft Form, Office 365 A1, Pisa, Italy) (Study Protocol #0012005/2023). We compared ICQ, IAS, and TAS-20 scores in subjects who met the threshold for a potential eating spectrum disorder according to EAT-26 scores ≥ 20 (n = 27) vs. subjects who scored <20 (n = 134), with an ANCOVA corrected for ‘age’ and ‘gender’. Subjects with EAT-26 ≥ 20, scored significantly higher at ICQ (54.4 ± 13.2 vs. 50.2 ± 6.8; p = 0.011), TAS-20 ‘Total Score’ (60.8 ± 11.9 vs. 58.1 ± 9.2; p = 0.006), and TAS-20 ‘Identifying Feelings’ (21.5 ± 7.6 vs. 17.3 ± 5.8; p = 0.0001). A binary logistic regression analysis, with EAT-26 scores < 20 vs. ≥20 as the dependent variable, and ICQ, IAS, TAS-20 total scores and dimensions, age, and gender (categorical) as covariates, showed that the only variable predicting eating spectrum symptomatology was ‘ICQ Total Score’ (OR = 1.075, 95% CI: 1.016–1.139; p = 0.013). Interoceptive confusion was the dimension linking the occurrence of alexithymic traits and eating spectrum manifestations. Full article
11 pages, 401 KiB  
Editorial
Joint Expedition: Exploring Telehealth and the Digital Healthcare Landscape as a Team Integration
by Daniele Giansanti
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050585 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 775
Abstract
The TeleHealth and digital healthcare domains have witnessed remarkable advancements in recent years (Contribution 1), propelled by the evolution of digitization processes, both in mobile [...] Full article
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11 pages, 696 KiB  
Article
“Meaning in Life” Mediates the Relationship between Loneliness and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Chanhee Kim and Jiyoung Chun
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050584 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Background: Loneliness was found to be a commonly experienced feeling among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and is considered to be a high-risk factor for depressive symptoms. Maintaining meaning in life has been found to be a protective resource for mental health [...] Read more.
Background: Loneliness was found to be a commonly experienced feeling among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and is considered to be a high-risk factor for depressive symptoms. Maintaining meaning in life has been found to be a protective resource for mental health among older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of an individual’s meaning in life in the relationship between loneliness and depressive symptoms among older Korean adults. Methods: The data were obtained from a sample of 213 community-dwelling older adults aged over 65. The instruments were the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Results: Loneliness was positively associated with depressive symptoms and negatively associated with the presence of and search for meaning among older adults. The presence of meaning mediated the relationship between loneliness and depressive symptoms but the search for meaning did not. The search for meaning mediated the relationship between loneliness and depressive symptoms through the presence of meaning. Conclusions: Our study findings suggest that efforts to reduce loneliness and improve meaning in life should be undertaken to prevent depressive symptoms among older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Quality of Life)
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10 pages, 548 KiB  
Case Report
Inguinoscrotal Hernia, a Possible Cause of Rapidly Developing Fetal Scrotal Mass: Case Report and Literature Update
by Ramona Montironi, Stefano Raffaele Giannubilo, Irene Cappanera, Giovanna Irene Battistoni, Romina Mancinelli and Andrea Ciavattini
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050583 - 02 Mar 2024
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Inguinoscrotal hernia is a common pediatric disease but a rare condition in the fetus. We present a case, from our institution, of fetal inguinoscrotal hernia with possible rapid development. In addition to our case, we present a literature update on fetal inguinoscrotal hernia [...] Read more.
Inguinoscrotal hernia is a common pediatric disease but a rare condition in the fetus. We present a case, from our institution, of fetal inguinoscrotal hernia with possible rapid development. In addition to our case, we present a literature update on fetal inguinoscrotal hernia in order to enhance the ability to recognize it from the other scrotal masses on ultrasound. Antenatal management, differential diagnosis and postnatal management are also discussed. Full article
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8 pages, 675 KiB  
Brief Report
Get-togethers: Guided Peer-Support Groups for Young Carers
by Eva Schellenberg, Rosa M. S. Visscher, Agnes Leu, Elena Guggiari and Sarah Rabhi-Sidler
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050582 - 02 Mar 2024
Viewed by 584
Abstract
To address Young Carers’ (YCs) needs for space and opportunities to reflect and exchange, a guided peer-support programme, the “Get-togethers”, was developed in collaboration with YC in Switzerland in 2018. In order to evaluate if the Get-togethers were able to meet their originally [...] Read more.
To address Young Carers’ (YCs) needs for space and opportunities to reflect and exchange, a guided peer-support programme, the “Get-togethers”, was developed in collaboration with YC in Switzerland in 2018. In order to evaluate if the Get-togethers were able to meet their originally set goals of (1) strengthening support among YCs, (2) promoting their life skills, (3) strengthening their social network and (4) promoting the inclusion and participation of YCs, participants of the Get-togethers were asked to complete a short questionnaire about their participation in and experiences with the Get-togethers. We also analysed the standard documentation of 17 Get-togethers held between May 2021 and September 2023. Overall, the Get-togethers were rated positively in almost all areas of the survey and the documentation, indicating that the four originally set objectives of the Get-togethers were (at least largely) achieved. The Get-togethers covered a large part of the needs of YCs, such as emotional support and opportunities to relax and exchange with people in a similar situation, yet they largely failed to reach minor YCs and male YCs. Further support programmes should be developed to address the different needs of different groups of YCs. Full article
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13 pages, 400 KiB  
Article
Are Higher Body Mass Index and Worse Metabolic Parameters Associated with More Aggressive Differentiated Thyroid Cancer? A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Yasmin Abu Arar, Michael Shilo, Natalya Bilenko, Michael Friger, Hagit Marsha, David Fisher, Merav Fraenkel and Uri Yoel
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050581 - 02 Mar 2024
Viewed by 671
Abstract
Obesity is a risk factor for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), but the association with DTC aggressiveness is controversial. To evaluate the association between preoperative body mass index (BMI)/other metabolic parameters and DTC aggressiveness in our surgical cohort, we retrospectively evaluated patients following thyroid [...] Read more.
Obesity is a risk factor for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), but the association with DTC aggressiveness is controversial. To evaluate the association between preoperative body mass index (BMI)/other metabolic parameters and DTC aggressiveness in our surgical cohort, we retrospectively evaluated patients following thyroid surgery who were diagnosed with DTC between December 2013 and January 2021. Baseline characteristics, histopathological features, treatment modalities, and follow-up data were studied. We conducted logistic regression to analyze the association between BMI/other metabolic parameters and adverse DTC features. The final study cohort included 211 patients (79.6% women; mean age± standard deviation 48.7 ± 15.9 years): 66 (31.3%) with normal weight, 81 (38.4%) with overweight, and 64 (30.3%) with obesity. The median follow-up was 51 months (range 7–93). Complete versus partial thyroidectomy was more common among patients living with overweight or obesity than in normal weight patients (79.7% versus 61.7%, p = 0.017, respectively). Logistic regression demonstrated that higher BMI was associated with mildly increased risk for lymph nodes metastases (odds ratio [OR] 1.077, 95% CI: 1.013–1.145), and higher triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio was associated with aggressive histological variants of DTC (OR 1.269, 95% CI 1.001–1.61). To conclude, specific adverse clinical and histopathological DTC features were indeed associated with higher BMI and higher TG/HDL-C ratio. Full article
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10 pages, 2610 KiB  
Article
Development of Field Tests for Cardiovascular Fitness Assessment in Wheelchair
by Eun Hyung Cho, Bong-Arm Choi and Yongsuk Seo
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050580 - 02 Mar 2024
Viewed by 539
Abstract
It is essential to consider both physique and physical fitness factors to minimize the risk of injuries and optimize athletic performance among elite athletes. Athletes with disabilities face limitations in fitness assessments compared to their healthy counterparts. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
It is essential to consider both physique and physical fitness factors to minimize the risk of injuries and optimize athletic performance among elite athletes. Athletes with disabilities face limitations in fitness assessments compared to their healthy counterparts. The aim of this study was to revalidate established cardiovascular fitness assessment methods and develop field tests for wheelchair athletes. As representatives registered at the Korea Paralympic Committee’s Athletes Training Center in Icheon, athletes with physical disabilities participating in para ice hockey (n = 14), who were capable of wheelchair control, were volunteered. Prior to cardiovascular fitness assessments using an ergometer and a shuttle run, demographic characteristics were surveyed, and physical measurements and muscle strength (grip strength) were recorded. All the participants performed one ergometer test based on cardiovascular fitness criteria, and for shuttle run validation, two trials were conducted using existing audio cues (National Physical Fitness 100, 20 m shuttle run). For the development of the shuttle run, considering wheelchair turning, signal-to-sound intervals were increased by 1 s and 1.5 s, respectively, in two trials. An analysis of the correlation with the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in comparison to the reference criterion, an ergometer, demonstrated high correlations in the first trial (r = 0.738) and the second trial (r = 0.780). Similarly, significant correlations were observed with the maximum heart rate (HRmax) in the first trial (r = 0.689) and the second trial (r = 0.896). Thus, the 15 m shuttle run is validated as a field test for assessing cardiovascular fitness in athletes with disabilities. Correlation analysis with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) compared to the reference criterion, an ergometer, revealed a correlation of 0.815 with a 1 s interval audio cue and 0.355 with a 1.5 s interval audio cue. A high correlation was observed with the 1 s interval audio cue. Regarding the maximum heart rate (HRmax), the correlations were 0.665 with a 1 s interval audio cue. Once again, a high correlation was noted with the 1 s interval audio cue. The field test selected for measuring cardiovascular fitness in wheelchair athletes involved performing a 15 m shuttle run while in the wheelchair. The test utilized an audio cue with a 1 s increased interval between the signal sounds. Full article
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19 pages, 452 KiB  
Article
The Occurrence of Anxiety, Depression, and Distress among Professionals Working in Emergency Care
by Luca Anna Ferkai, Bence Schiszler, Bálint Bánfai, Attila Pandur, Gergely Gálos, Zsuzsanna Kívés, Dávid Sipos, József Betlehem, Tímea Stromájer-Rácz and Krisztina Deutsch
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050579 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Maintaining mental health is essential for professions with higher stress levels and challenging environments, including emergency specializations. In this study, the occurrence of distress, anxiety, and depression among a group of ambulance and hospital emergency care professionals was assessed (n = 202). [...] Read more.
Maintaining mental health is essential for professions with higher stress levels and challenging environments, including emergency specializations. In this study, the occurrence of distress, anxiety, and depression among a group of ambulance and hospital emergency care professionals was assessed (n = 202). A cross-sectional, quantitative, descriptive online survey was conducted, including the internationally validated Beck depression inventory (BDI), the perceived stress scale (PSS-14), and the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Statistical analyses involved descriptive statistics, the χ2-test, Mann–Whitney U test, Kruskal–Wallis test, Dunn–Bonferroni test, logistic regression (LR), Cramer coefficient (Cramer’s V), Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (rs). Based on the results, female professionals are more likely to have depressive symptoms (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3–5.1), perceived stress (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.2–4.1), and anxiety (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.0–4.1) than male professionals. Perceived stress levels decreased proportionally with increasing years spent working in healthcare (OR = 7.4, 95% CI = 7.1–8.3). Extended work shifts of 12 or 24 h increase the risk of perceived stress and anxiety in emergency care workers (p = 0.02). Customized stress management interventions are needed to mitigate the amplified mental strain associated with gender, working years, and longer shifts in the emergency care sector to sustain their mental health and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shift Work and Occupational Health)
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19 pages, 4841 KiB  
Article
Examining the Use and Benefits of Low-/Mild-Gain Hearing Aids in Service Members with Normal Hearing Thresholds and Self-Reported Hearing Difficulties
by Alyssa J. Davidson, Gregory M. Ellis, Kimberly Jenkins, Melissa Kokx-Ryan and Douglas S. Brungart
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050578 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 864
Abstract
Low- (or mild-) gain hearing aids (LGHAs) are increasingly considered for individuals with normal peripheral hearing but significant self-reported hearing difficulties (SHDs). This study assesses the benefits of LGHAs as a management option for individuals with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) and SHDs, comparing [...] Read more.
Low- (or mild-) gain hearing aids (LGHAs) are increasingly considered for individuals with normal peripheral hearing but significant self-reported hearing difficulties (SHDs). This study assesses the benefits of LGHAs as a management option for individuals with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) and SHDs, comparing LGHA use and benefit to individuals with non-significant hearing difficulties (NHDs) and those with peripheral hearing loss. Questionnaires addressing hearing aid usage, benefit, hearing difficulties, and tinnitus were administered to 186 individuals who self-identified as hearing aid users in a sample of 6652 service members who were receiving their annual hearing tests. Participants were divided into SHD and NHD groups based on the normative cutoff of the Tinnitus and Hearing Survey-Hearing Subscale (THS-H), and into hearing impairment (HI) and NHT based on their audiometric air-conduction thresholds. Individuals with SHDs and NHTs reported higher LGHA usage and benefit than individuals with NHDs and NHTs. Comparable use and benefit were noted between groups with SHDs regardless of peripheral hearing loss status. The findings support LGHAs as a suitable management option for individuals with NHTs and SHDs, as indicated by hearing aid use and benefit. Quantifying the level of perceived auditory processing deficits (i.e., SHDs), notably with the THS-H, enhances sensitivity in identifying those who may benefit the most from this treatment option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auditory Processing Disorder: A Forgotten Hearing Impairment)
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13 pages, 582 KiB  
Article
Association between Post-Hospitalization Psychological Distress, Exercise Capacity, Physical Function and Health Status in COVID-19 Survivors
by Clara D’Ors-Vilardebó, Maria Àngels Cebrià i Iranzo, Carola González-King-Garibotti, María Isabel Vázquez-Arce, Andrés Calvache-Mateo, Laura López-López and Marie Carmen Valenza
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050577 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 571
Abstract
This study aims to determine whether post-hospitalization psychological distress is associated with exercise capacity, physical function and health status in COVID-19 survivors. In this observational study, hospitalized COVID patients were included and divided into two groups according to the mental component summary subscale [...] Read more.
This study aims to determine whether post-hospitalization psychological distress is associated with exercise capacity, physical function and health status in COVID-19 survivors. In this observational study, hospitalized COVID patients were included and divided into two groups according to the mental component summary subscale of the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Patients with a score ≤ 45 were included in the psychological distress group, and patients with a score > 45 were included in the non-psychological distress group. The main variables were exercise capacity, physical function, and health status. Patients were evaluated at discharge, 3 months, and at 6 months follow-up. Finally, a total of 60 patients were included in the study. Significant differences were found in exercise capacity, physical function, and health status (p < 0.05), with worse results in the group with psychological distress at discharge and 3 months follow-up. At 6 months after discharge, COVID patients with psychological distress exhibited worse results in exercise capacity, physical function, and health status, being significant exercise capacity and physical function (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that COVID patients with psychological distress at hospital discharge reported worse exercise capacity, physical function and health status at hospital discharge, 3 months and 6 months follow-up. Full article
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16 pages, 295 KiB  
Review
Investigation of the Approaches to Optimal Exercise Interventions Based on Dementia Type: A Theoretical Review
by Hyun Lee, Hyeongmin Lee, Jinhyung Choi, Gyujeong Hwang, Hyemin Lee, Hyunmin Lee, Sujeong Kim, Minjeong Kim, Huiju Nam, Jaeyoon Shim, Hatem Jaber and Jongeun Yim
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050576 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1091
Abstract
The aim of this study is to enhance comprehension of the different types and features of dementia, including their symptoms, diagnosis and medical treatment, and to propose various evidence-based exercise interventions and their clinical applications tailored to each specific type of dementia. The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to enhance comprehension of the different types and features of dementia, including their symptoms, diagnosis and medical treatment, and to propose various evidence-based exercise interventions and their clinical applications tailored to each specific type of dementia. The theoretical review includes the analysis of publications in the scientific databases PubMed/Medline, Ebsco, Scielo, and Google. A total of 177 articles were found, of which 84 were studied in depth. With the prevalence of all forms of dementia projected to increase from 57.4 million in 2019 to 152.8 million in 2050, personalized treatment strategies are needed. This review discusses various forms of dementia, including their pathologies, diagnostic criteria, and prevalence rates. The importance of accurate diagnosis and tailored care is emphasized, as well as the effectiveness of physical exercise in improving cognitive function in dementia patients. For Alzheimer’s, a combination of drug therapies and exercises is recommended to enhance cerebral blood flow and neurotransmitter activity. To improve cognitive and motor functions in Lewy body dementia, a combination of pharmacological and physical therapies is recommended. For managing frontotemporal dementia, a mix of medication and exercises aimed at emotion regulation, including aerobic exercises, and a unified protocol, is suggested. For mild cognitive impairment, aerobic and functional exercises are important in delaying cognitive decline and enhancing cognitive performance. In conclusion, individualized care and treatment plans tailored to the specific characteristics of each disease type can improve the quality of life for individuals with this condition and effectively manage this growing global health issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Physical Activity on Psychological Function and Health)
31 pages, 797 KiB  
Systematic Review
Etiologic Factors of Temporomandibular Disorders: A Systematic Review of Literature Containing Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) and Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) from 2018 to 2022
by Joanna Warzocha, Joanna Gadomska-Krasny and Joanna Mrowiec
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050575 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1012
Abstract
This study aims to conduct a systematic analysis of literature published between 1 January 2018 and 1 September 2022, exploring factors influencing the progression or development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), diagnosed using the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) or Research Diagnostic Criteria [...] Read more.
This study aims to conduct a systematic analysis of literature published between 1 January 2018 and 1 September 2022, exploring factors influencing the progression or development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), diagnosed using the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) or Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Three electronic databases were reviewed to identify papers that examined TMD factors using DC/TMD or RDC/TMD. Inclusion criteria encompassed original research published in English between 1 January 2018 and 1 October 2022, online, and complete DC/TMD or RDC/TMD studies on human participants aged 18 or older. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias using The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Analytical cross-sectional studies’ Critical Appraisal Tool. Of 1478 articles, 11 were included. The studies revealed strong associations between TMD and factors such as female, poor sleep quality, depression, oral parafunction, anxiety, somatization, and anatomical features. However, variables such as education, living conditions, socioeconomic status, marital status, chronic pain, and stress did not exhibit statistically significant correlations. Based on the obtained data, it can be concluded that the causes of TMD are largely related to psychological factors, which supports the biopsychosocial theory of the disorder. Full article
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12 pages, 978 KiB  
Article
Measuring Motivations to Eat Palatable Foods: Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Italian Version of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS-IT)
by Giada Pietrabissa, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Michelle Semonella, Stefania Mannarini and Alessandro Alberto Rossi
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050574 - 29 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 602
Abstract
Background: Gaining knowledge of the various reasons behind people’s consumption of highly processed foods has the potential to enhance obesity prevention initiatives and open avenues to tailor treatment approaches for obesity and binge eating at a more personalized level. This contribution aimed to [...] Read more.
Background: Gaining knowledge of the various reasons behind people’s consumption of highly processed foods has the potential to enhance obesity prevention initiatives and open avenues to tailor treatment approaches for obesity and binge eating at a more personalized level. This contribution aimed to test the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS-IT) in a community sample of Italian adults. Methods: A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the factor structure of the Italian version of the PEMS (PEMS-IT) on a total of 616 respondents. Furthermore, the reliability and convergent validity analysis of the tool were evaluated. Results: The analysis confirmed the four-factor structure of PEMS-IT [(YBχ2 (164) = 537.901; p < 0.001, the CFI = 0.918, RMSEA = 0.072; 90%CI [0.065–0.078]; p(RMSEA < 0.05) < 0.001, and SRMR = 0.080] and satisfactory reliability on its subscales (Cronbach’s α: 0.745–0.917). Positive correlations were also found with food addiction and binge-eating symptoms, compulsive eating behavior, and uncontrolled and emotional eating. Conclusions: The PEMS-IT appears to be an instrument with promising psychometric properties and potential applications in clinical settings. However, it also has some limitations, and future studies could focus on improving the semantic content of the elements to increase the overall utility and precision of the instrument. Full article
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14 pages, 816 KiB  
Article
Descriptive Analysis of Carrier and Affected Hereditary Fructose Intolerance in Women during Pregnancy
by Estefanía Zuriaga, Sonia Santander, Laura Lomba, Elsa Izquierdo-García and María José Luesma
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050573 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 620
Abstract
(1) Background: Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder resulting from aldolase B deficiency, requiring a fructose, sorbitol and sucrose (FSS)-free diet. Limited information exists on the relationship between pregnancy outcomes and HFI. This study aims to analyze pregnancy-related [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder resulting from aldolase B deficiency, requiring a fructose, sorbitol and sucrose (FSS)-free diet. Limited information exists on the relationship between pregnancy outcomes and HFI. This study aims to analyze pregnancy-related factors in a cohort of thirty Spanish women, with twenty-three being carriers and seven being HFI-affected (45 pregnancies). (2) Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study utilized an anonymous questionnaire. (3) Results: Findings encompassed physical and emotional states, nutritional habits, pathology development and baby information. Notable results include improved physical and emotional states compared to the general population, with conventional analyses mostly within normal ranges. Persistent issues after pregnancy included hepatic steatosis, liver adenomas and hemangiomas. Carrier mothers’ babies exhibited higher weight than those of patient mothers, while the weights of carrier children born with HFI were similar to disease-affected children. (4) Conclusions: Pregnant women with HFI did not significantly differ in physical and emotional states, except for nausea, vomiting, and cravings. Post-pregnancy, HFI patients and carriers exhibited persistent hepatic issues. Significantly, babies born to HFI-affected mothers had lower weights. This study sheds light on pregnancy outcomes in HFI, emphasizing potential complications and the need for ongoing monitoring and care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Management of Inherited Metabolic Disorders)
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26 pages, 1278 KiB  
Systematic Review
Assessment of Intuitive Eating and Mindful Eating among Higher Education Students: A Systematic Review
by Fabiane Rezende, Bruno M. P. M. Oliveira and Rui Poínhos
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050572 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 910
Abstract
Background: The role of mindful eating (ME) and intuitive eating (IE) in improving eating behavior, diet quality, and health is an area of increasing interest. Objective: The objective of this review was to identify the instruments used to assess ME and IE among [...] Read more.
Background: The role of mindful eating (ME) and intuitive eating (IE) in improving eating behavior, diet quality, and health is an area of increasing interest. Objective: The objective of this review was to identify the instruments used to assess ME and IE among higher education students and outcomes related to these dimensions. Methods: This review was carried out according to the PRISMA statement, through systematic searches in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and Scopus. The inclusion criteria selected for higher education students, levels of ME and/or IE reported, and observational and clinical studies. The exclusion criteria selected against reviews, qualitative studies, and case studies. Quality was assessed using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Criteria Checklist. Results: A total of 516 initial records were identified, from which 75 were included. Cross-sectional studies were the most common research design (86.7%). Most studies were conducted with samples that were predominantly female (90.7%), White (76.0%), aged 18 to 22 years (88.4%), with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (83.0%), and in the United States (61.3%). The Intuitive Eating Scale (IES), the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ), and their different versions were the most used instruments. The outcomes most studies included were eating behavior and disorders (77.3%), anthropometric assessments (47.8%), mental health (42.0%), and body image (40.6%). Regarding the quality of studies, 34.7% of studies were assigned a positive, 1.3% a negative, and 64.0% a neutral rate. Conclusions: IES and MEQ were the most used instruments. RCT and cohort studies are scarce, and future research with a higher level of quality is needed, especially on the topics of food consumption, diet quality, and biochemical markers. Full article
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15 pages, 2042 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effects of Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Seung-Yeon Kong and Mi-Kyoung Cho
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050571 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 932
Abstract
As the prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing, the use of continuous glucose monitoring, which is effective in improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, is increasing. Methods: Systematic review was performed according to PRISMA criteria. The search was conducted for articles published [...] Read more.
As the prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing, the use of continuous glucose monitoring, which is effective in improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, is increasing. Methods: Systematic review was performed according to PRISMA criteria. The search was conducted for articles published until 31 May 2023 in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ClinicalKey, etc. The meta-analysis involved the synthesis of effect size; tests of homogeneity and heterogeneity; trim and fill plot; Egger’s regression test; and Begg’s test for assessing publication bias. Results: 491 studies were searched, of which 17 studies that met the selection criteria were analyzed. The overall effect on HbA1c was −0.37 (95% CI, −0.63~−0.11, p < 0.001), with HbA1c decreasing significantly after CGM interventions. Sub-analyses showed that the study was statistically significant in those aged 60 years or older, when rt-CGM was used and when the study was performed in multiple centers. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that intervention using CGM was effective in reducing HbA1c in type 2 diabetes. The factors identified in this study can be used as guidelines for developing future CGM intervention programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing Care for Patients with Diabetes)
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14 pages, 530 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Prevalence of Poor Mental Health in the Construction Industry
by Rachel Blair Winkler, Campbell Middleton and Olivia Remes
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050570 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 979
Abstract
A plethora of studies on the prevalence of poor mental health have been undertaken in the general population. Nevertheless, an understanding of the prevalence of poor mental health in the context of high-risk settings, such as construction, is missing. This is noteworthy as [...] Read more.
A plethora of studies on the prevalence of poor mental health have been undertaken in the general population. Nevertheless, an understanding of the prevalence of poor mental health in the context of high-risk settings, such as construction, is missing. This is noteworthy as poor mental health is widespread in this context. Given that over 100 million people work in construction on a global scale, a better understanding of the burden of poor mental health in construction is needed. To this end, a review on the prevalence of key mental health-related conditions in construction was undertaken. Through this review, over 1000 papers were identified through PubMed and Google Scholar. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, a final set of 19 documents were included. Results showed that anxiety and depressive disorders, as well as psychological distress, have a high burden in construction. Vulnerable population subgroups (e.g., women, minority ethnic groups) were identified. Construction is a high-risk setting and despite this, the burden of poor mental health in this context is not given the importance it deserves. This review sheds light on the prevalence of key conditions, which are linked to high humanistic and economic burden. This review provides a foundation and useful starting point for further investigations, and results from this review may be used to inform future research, workplace interventions, and policy. Full article
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