Next Article in Journal
Longer Photoperiods with the Same Daily Light Integral Increase Daily Electron Transport through Photosystem II in Lettuce
Previous Article in Journal
Iron-Sulfur Cluster Complex Assembly in the Mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana
Open AccessArticle

Chitosan Modified Biochar Increases Soybean (Glycine max L.) Resistance to Salt-Stress by Augmenting Root Morphology, Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and the Expression of Stress-Responsive Genes

1
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Radionuclides Pollution Control and Resources, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
2
School of Civil Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
3
Statistical Genomics Lab, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
4
Soil and Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
5
Department of Botany, Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
6
College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Plants 2020, 9(9), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091173
Received: 3 July 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 2 September 2020 / Published: 10 September 2020
Soybean is an important oilseed crop that provides high-quality protein and vegetable oil. Salinity constitutes a negative abiotic factor that reduces soybean plant growth, production, and quality. The adsorption of Na+ by chitosan-modified biochar (CMB) has a significant effect on salinity but the application of CMB is limited in soybean. In the current study, CMB was used for characterization of physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of soybean under salt stress. Comparison of CMB and unmodified (as-is) biochar (BR) demonstrated a significant difference between them shown by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scan electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), elemental analysis and z-potential measurement. Pseudo-first and second-order better suited for the analysis of Na+ adsorption kinetics. The salt-stress reduced the soybean plants growth, root architecture characteristics, biomass yield, nutrients acquisition, chlorophyll contents, soluble protein, and sugar contents, while CMB with salt-stress significantly increased the above parameters. Moreover, CMB also reduced the salinity-induced increase in the Na+, glycine betaine (GB), proline, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in plants. The antioxidant activity and gene expression levels triggered by salinity but with the application of CMB significantly further boosted the expression profile of four genes (CAT, APX, POD and SOD) encoding antioxidant enzyme and two salt-tolerant conferring genes (GmSALT3 and CHS). Overall, these findings demonstrate the crucial role of CMB in minimizing the adverse effects of high salinity on soybean growth and efficiency of the mechanisms enabling plant protection from salinity through a shift of the architecture of the root system and enhancing the antioxidant defense systems and stress-responsive genes for achieving sustainable crop production. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; biochar; sodium; kinetics; antioxidants; salinity tolerance genes chitosan; biochar; sodium; kinetics; antioxidants; salinity tolerance genes
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Mehmood, S.; Ahmed, W.; Ikram, M.; Imtiaz, M.; Mahmood, S.; Tu, S.; Chen, D. Chitosan Modified Biochar Increases Soybean (Glycine max L.) Resistance to Salt-Stress by Augmenting Root Morphology, Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms and the Expression of Stress-Responsive Genes. Plants 2020, 9, 1173.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop