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Biomolecules 2019, 9(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9030113

Metformin Induces Different Responses in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Caki Cell Lines

1
Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar
2
Interim Translational Research Institute, Academic Health System, Hamad Medical Corporation, P.O. Box 3050, Doha, Qatar
3
Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Drake University, Des Moines, IA 50311, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common and lethal form of urological cancer diagnosed globally. Mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor-suppressor gene and the resultant overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein are considered hallmarks of ccRCC. Persistently activated HIF-1α is associated with increased cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), consequently leading to ccRCC progression and metastasis to other organs. However, the VHL status alone cannot predict the differential sensitivity of ccRCC to cancer treatments, which suggests that other molecular differences may contribute to the differential response of ccRCC cells to drug therapies. In this study, we investigated the response to metformin (an antidiabetic drug) of two human ccRCC cell lines Caki-1 and Caki-2, which express wild-type VHL. Our findings demonstrate a differential response between the two ccRCC cell lines studied, with Caki-2 cells being more sensitive to metformin compared to Caki-1 cells, which could be linked to the differential expression of HIF-1α despite both cell lines carrying a wild-type VHL. Our study unveils the therapeutic potential of metformin to inhibit the progression of ccRCC in vitro. Additional preclinical and clinical studies are required to ascertain the therapeutic efficacy of metformin against ccRCC. View Full-Text
Keywords: renal cell carcinoma; von Hippel-Lindau; hypoxia-inducible factor; AMP-activated kinase; metformin renal cell carcinoma; von Hippel-Lindau; hypoxia-inducible factor; AMP-activated kinase; metformin
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Pasha, M.; Sivaraman, S.K.; Frantz, R.; Agouni, A.; Munusamy, S. Metformin Induces Different Responses in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Caki Cell Lines. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 113.

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