Spermatogenesis is a continuous and dynamic developmental process, in which a single diploid spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) proliferates and differentiates to form a mature spermatozoon. Herein, we summarize the accumulated knowledge of SSCs and their distribution in the testes of teleosts. We also reviewed the primary endocrine and paracrine influence on spermatogonium self-renewal vs. differentiation in fish. To provide insight into techniques and research related to SSCs, we review available protocols and advances in enriching undifferentiated spermatogonia based on their unique physiochemical and biochemical properties, such as size, density, and differential expression of specific surface markers. We summarize in vitro germ cell culture conditions developed to maintain proliferation and survival of spermatogonia in selected fish species. In traditional culture systems, sera and feeder cells were considered to be essential for SSC self-renewal, in contrast to recently developed systems with well-defined media and growth factors to induce either SSC self-renewal or differentiation in long-term cultures. The establishment of a germ cell culture contributes to efficient SSC propagation in rare, endangered, or commercially cultured fish species for use in biotechnological manipulation, such as cryopreservation and transplantation. Finally, we discuss organ culture and three-dimensional models for in vitro investigation of fish spermatogenesis.
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