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Ice Binding Proteins: Diverse Biological Roles and Applications in Different Types of Industry

Institute of Molecular and Industrial Biotechnology, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90–924 Łódź, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(2), 274;
Received: 30 December 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2020 / Accepted: 7 February 2020 / Published: 11 February 2020
More than 80% of Earth’s surface is exposed periodically or continuously to temperatures below 5 °C. Organisms that can live in these areas are called psychrophilic or psychrotolerant. They have evolved many adaptations that allow them to survive low temperatures. One of the most interesting modifications is production of specific substances that prevent living organisms from freezing. Psychrophiles can synthesize special peptides and proteins that modulate the growth of ice crystals and are generally called ice binding proteins (IBPs). Among them, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) inhibit the formation of large ice grains inside the cells that may damage cellular organelles or cause cell death. AFPs, with their unique properties of thermal hysteresis (TH) and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI), have become one of the promising tools in industrial applications like cryobiology, food storage, and others. Attention of the industry was also caught by another group of IBPs exhibiting a different activity—ice-nucleating proteins (INPs). This review summarizes the current state of art and possible utilizations of the large group of IBPs.
Keywords: ice binding proteins; cryopreservation; antifreeze proteins ice binding proteins; cryopreservation; antifreeze proteins
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Białkowska, A.; Majewska, E.; Olczak, A.; Twarda-Clapa, A. Ice Binding Proteins: Diverse Biological Roles and Applications in Different Types of Industry. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 274.

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