Next Article in Journal
A Compact In-Line Waveguide-to-Microstrip Transition in the Q-Band for Radio Astronomy Applications
Previous Article in Journal
Multi-Agent Cooperative Control Consensus: A Comparative Review
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Electronics 2018, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7020023

A 3D Printing Model Watermarking Algorithm Based on 3D Slicing and Feature Points

1
Department of IT Convergence & Application Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Korea
2
Department of Information Security, Tongmyong University, Busan 608-711, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [2386 KB, uploaded 22 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

With the increase of three-dimensional (3D) printing applications in many areas of life, a large amount of 3D printing data is copied, shared, and used several times without any permission from the original providers. Therefore, copyright protection and ownership identification for 3D printing data in communications or commercial transactions are practical issues. This paper presents a novel watermarking algorithm for 3D printing models based on embedding watermark data into the feature points of a 3D printing model. Feature points are determined and computed by the 3D slicing process along the Z axis of a 3D printing model. The watermark data is embedded into a feature point of a 3D printing model by changing the vector length of the feature point in OXY space based on the reference length. The x and y coordinates of the feature point will be then changed according to the changed vector length that has been embedded with a watermark. Experimental results verified that the proposed algorithm is invisible and robust to geometric attacks, such as rotation, scaling, and translation. The proposed algorithm provides a better method than the conventional works, and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is much higher than previous methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D watermarking protocol; 3D printing copyright; 3D identification; 3D model watermarking; 3D printing model; 3D slicing 3D watermarking protocol; 3D printing copyright; 3D identification; 3D model watermarking; 3D printing model; 3D slicing
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pham, G.N.; Lee, S.-H.; Kwon, O.-H.; Kwon, K.-R. A 3D Printing Model Watermarking Algorithm Based on 3D Slicing and Feature Points. Electronics 2018, 7, 23.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Electronics EISSN 2079-9292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top