Spectral and Energy Efficiency of Distributed Massive MIMO with Low-Resolution ADC
AbstractIn this paper, considering a more realistic case where the low-resolution analog-to-digital convertors (ADCs) are employed at receiver antennas, we investigate the spectral and energy efficiency in multi-cell multi-user distributed massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems with two linear receivers. An additive quantization noise model is provided first to study the effects of quantization noise. Using the model provided, the closed-form expressions for the uplink achievable rates with a zero-forcing (ZF) receiver and a maximum ratio combination (MRC) receiver under quantization noise and pilot contamination are derived. Furthermore, the asymptotic achievable rates are also given when the number of quantization bits, the per user transmit power, and the number of antennas per remote antenna unit (RAU) go to infinity, respectively. Numerical results prove that the theoretical analysis is accurate and show that quantization noise degrades the performance in spectral efficiency, but the growth in the number of antennas can compensate for the degradation. Furthermore, low-resolution ADCs with 3 or 4 bits outperform perfect ADCs in energy efficiency. Numerical results imply that it is preferable to use low-resolution ADCs in distributed massive MIMO systems. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Li, J.; Lv, Q.; Yang, J.; Zhu, P.; You, X. Spectral and Energy Efficiency of Distributed Massive MIMO with Low-Resolution ADC. Electronics 2018, 7, 391.
Li J, Lv Q, Yang J, Zhu P, You X. Spectral and Energy Efficiency of Distributed Massive MIMO with Low-Resolution ADC. Electronics. 2018; 7(12):391.Chicago/Turabian Style
Li, Jiamin; Lv, Qian; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Pengcheng; You, Xiaohu. 2018. "Spectral and Energy Efficiency of Distributed Massive MIMO with Low-Resolution ADC." Electronics 7, no. 12: 391.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.