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Open AccessArticle

Unravelling the Potential Cytotoxic Effects of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Metal(Loid) Mixtures on A549 Human Cell Line

1
EPIUnit—Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Taipas, n° 135, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Environmental Health, Portuguese National Institute of Health, Rua Alexandre Herculano, 321, 4000-055 Porto, Portugal
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ICBAS—Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto—University of Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Chemistry and Aveiro Institute of Materials (CICECO), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Department of Chemistry and Center of Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos, S/N, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030447
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2020 / Accepted: 25 February 2020 / Published: 2 March 2020
Humans are typically exposed to environmental contaminants’ mixtures that result in different toxicity than exposure to the individual counterparts. Yet, the toxicology of chemical mixtures has been overlooked. This work aims at assessing and comparing viability and cell cycle of A549 cells after exposure to single and binary mixtures of: titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NP) 0.75–75 mg/L; cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NP) 0.75–10 μg/L; arsenic (As) 0.75–2.5 mg/L; and mercury (Hg) 5–100 mg/L. Viability was assessed through water-soluble tetrazolium (WST-1) and thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) (24 h exposure) and clonogenic (seven-day exposure) assays. Cell cycle alterations were explored by flow cytometry. Viability was affected in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Prolonged exposure caused inhibition of cell proliferation even at low concentrations. Cell-cycle progression was affected by TiO2NP 75 mg/L, and As 0.75 and 2.5 μg/L, increasing the cell proportion at G0/G1 phase. Combined exposure of TiO2NP or CeO2NP mitigated As adverse effects, increasing the cell surviving factor, but cell cycle alterations were still observed. Only CeO2NP co-exposure reduced Hg toxicity, translated in a decrease of cells in Sub-G1. Toxicity was diminished for both NPs co-exposure compared to its toxicity alone, but a marked toxicity for the highest concentrations was observed for longer exposures. These findings prove that joint toxicity of contaminants must not be disregarded. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytotoxicity; co-exposure; mixtures; A549; arsenic; mercury; titanium dioxide nanoparticles; cerium oxide nanoparticles; clonogenic assay; cell-cycle cytotoxicity; co-exposure; mixtures; A549; arsenic; mercury; titanium dioxide nanoparticles; cerium oxide nanoparticles; clonogenic assay; cell-cycle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rosário, F.; Bessa, M.J.; Brandão, F.; Costa, C.; Lopes, C.B.; Estrada, A.C.; Tavares, D.S.; Teixeira, J.P.; Reis, A.T. Unravelling the Potential Cytotoxic Effects of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Metal(Loid) Mixtures on A549 Human Cell Line. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 447. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030447

AMA Style

Rosário F, Bessa MJ, Brandão F, Costa C, Lopes CB, Estrada AC, Tavares DS, Teixeira JP, Reis AT. Unravelling the Potential Cytotoxic Effects of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Metal(Loid) Mixtures on A549 Human Cell Line. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10(3):447. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030447

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rosário, Fernanda; Bessa, Maria J.; Brandão, Fátima; Costa, Carla; Lopes, Cláudia B.; Estrada, Ana C.; Tavares, Daniela S.; Teixeira, João P.; Reis, Ana T. 2020. "Unravelling the Potential Cytotoxic Effects of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Metal(Loid) Mixtures on A549 Human Cell Line" Nanomaterials 10, no. 3: 447. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030447

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