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J. Intell., Volume 12, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 10 articles

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28 pages, 2324 KiB  
Article
A Novel Approach to Measuring an Old Construct: Aligning the Conceptualisation and Operationalisation of Cognitive Flexibility
by Jens F. Beckmann, Damian P. Birney and Robert J. Sternberg
J. Intell. 2024, 12(6), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12060061 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 442
Abstract
A successful adjustment to dynamic changes in one’s environment requires contingent adaptive behaviour. Such behaviour is underpinned by cognitive flexibility, which conceptually is part of fluid intelligence. We argue, however, that conventional approaches to measuring fluid intelligence are insufficient in capturing cognitive flexibility. [...] Read more.
A successful adjustment to dynamic changes in one’s environment requires contingent adaptive behaviour. Such behaviour is underpinned by cognitive flexibility, which conceptually is part of fluid intelligence. We argue, however, that conventional approaches to measuring fluid intelligence are insufficient in capturing cognitive flexibility. We address the discrepancy between conceptualisation and operationalisation by introducing two newly developed tasks that aim at capturing within-person processes of dealing with novelty. In an exploratory proof-of-concept study, the two flexibility tasks were administered to 307 university students, together with a battery of conventional measures of fluid intelligence. Participants also provided information about their Grade Point Averages obtained in high school and in their first year at university. We tested (1) whether an experimental manipulation of a requirement for cognitive inhibition resulted in systematic differences in difficulty, (2) whether these complexity differences reflect psychometrically differentiable effects, and (3) whether these newly developed flexibility tasks show incremental value in predicting success in the transition from high school to university over conventional operationalisations of fluid intelligence. Our findings support the notion that cognitive flexibility, when conceptualised and operationalised as individual differences in within-person processes of dealing with novelty, more appropriately reflects the dynamics of individuals’ behaviour when attempting to cope with changing demands. Full article
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3 pages, 208 KiB  
Editorial
Emotional Competency in Education: Special Issue on Emotional Intelligence and Creativity
by Macarena-Paz Celume and Franck Zenasni
J. Intell. 2024, 12(6), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12060060 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 288
Abstract
According to Salovey and Mayer (1990), having high EI allows individuals to think clearly, supports intuition and insight, and ultimately enhances creative thinking [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotional Intelligence and Creativity)
13 pages, 879 KiB  
Article
How Does Active Learning Pedagogy Shape Learner Curiosity? A Multi-Site Mediator Study of Learner Engagement among 45,972 Children
by Ji Liu, Dahman Tahri and Faying Qiang
J. Intell. 2024, 12(6), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12060059 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Curiosity is one of the most fundamental biological drives that stimulates individuals’ intense desire to explore, learn, and create. Yet, mechanisms of how curiosity is influenced by instructional pedagogy remain unclear. To shed light on this gap, the present study sets out to [...] Read more.
Curiosity is one of the most fundamental biological drives that stimulates individuals’ intense desire to explore, learn, and create. Yet, mechanisms of how curiosity is influenced by instructional pedagogy remain unclear. To shed light on this gap, the present study sets out to investigate the underlying channels linking active learning pedagogy, learner engagement, and learner curiosity, employing a partial least-squares structural equation model leveraging the Social and Emotional Skills Survey dataset across ten sites (N = 45,972). Findings indicate that active learning pedagogy is positively associated with learner engagement (std. β = 0.016, p = 0.005), but there lacks a significant direct effect on learner curiosity (std. β = −0.001, p = 0.738). Structural mediation results show that learner engagement is a key mediating channel linking active learning pedagogy and learner curiosity (std. β = 0.013, p = 0.005). Full article
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20 pages, 3139 KiB  
Article
Personality Traits and Family SES Moderate the Relationship between Media Multitasking and Reasoning Performance
by Yuning Ma, Jinrong Yin, Hongzhou Xuan, Xuezhu Ren, Jie He and Tengfei Wang
J. Intell. 2024, 12(6), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12060058 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 175
Abstract
The prevalence of media multitasking has raised concerns regarding its potential impact on cognitive abilities. Despite increasing attention given to this topic, there remains no consensus on how media multitasking is related to cognitive performance. This study aims to shed light on this [...] Read more.
The prevalence of media multitasking has raised concerns regarding its potential impact on cognitive abilities. Despite increasing attention given to this topic, there remains no consensus on how media multitasking is related to cognitive performance. This study aims to shed light on this issue by examining whether and how personality traits and family socioeconomic status (SES) moderate the relationship between media multitasking and reasoning performance. To this end, a large sample of university students (n = 777) completed a battery of measures, including the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Media Multitasking Inventory, the Big Five Inventory, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Grit Scale, and the Family SES Questionnaire. Results revealed a negative correlation between media multitasking and reasoning performance. However, this relationship was substantially moderated by conscientiousness, extraversion, openness, and family SES. Specifically, media multitasking was more detrimental to reasoning performance among individuals with lower levels of conscientiousness, extraversion, openness, and family SES, whereas it was less detrimental to counterparts with higher levels of these personality traits and family SES. The proposed moderation model, for the first time, not only offers novel insights into the theoretical accounts regarding how media multitasking relates to cognitive abilities, but also identifies the protective factors that may buffer the negative impacts of media multitasking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personality and Individual Differences)
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10 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
Social, Demographic, and Psychological Factors Associated with Middle-Aged Mother’s Vocabulary: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study
by Helen Cheng and Adrian Furnham
J. Intell. 2024, 12(6), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12060057 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 232
Abstract
Based on a sample of 8271 mothers, this study explored a set of psychological and sociodemographic factors associated with their vocabulary, drawing on data from a large, nationally representative sample of children born in 2000. The dependent variable was maternal vocabulary assessed when [...] Read more.
Based on a sample of 8271 mothers, this study explored a set of psychological and sociodemographic factors associated with their vocabulary, drawing on data from a large, nationally representative sample of children born in 2000. The dependent variable was maternal vocabulary assessed when cohort members were at fourteen years of age, and the mothers were in their mid-forties. Data were also collected when cohort members were at birth, 9 months old, and at ages 3, 7, 11 and 14 years. Correlational analysis showed that family income at birth, parent–child relationship quality at age 3, maternal educational qualifications at age 11, and maternal personality trait Openness at age 14 were significantly and positively associated with maternal vocabulary. It also showed maternal malaise at 9 months and children’s behavioral adjustment at age 7, and maternal traits Neuroticism and Agreeableness at age 14 were significantly and negatively associated with maternal vocabulary. Maternal age was also significantly and positively associated with vocabulary. Regression analysis showed that maternal age, malaise, parent–child relationship quality, children’s behavioral adjustment, maternal educational qualifications, and traits Openness and Agreeableness were significant predictors of maternal vocabulary, accounting for 33% of total variance. The implications and limitations are discussed. Full article
22 pages, 3729 KiB  
Article
Mapping the Memory Structure of High-Knowledge Students: A Longitudinal Semantic Network Analysis
by Simone A. Luchini, Shuyao Wang, Yoed N. Kenett and Roger E. Beaty
J. Intell. 2024, 12(6), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12060056 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Standard learning assessments like multiple-choice questions measure what students know but not how their knowledge is organized. Recent advances in cognitive network science provide quantitative tools for modeling the structure of semantic memory, revealing key learning mechanisms. In two studies, we examined the [...] Read more.
Standard learning assessments like multiple-choice questions measure what students know but not how their knowledge is organized. Recent advances in cognitive network science provide quantitative tools for modeling the structure of semantic memory, revealing key learning mechanisms. In two studies, we examined the semantic memory networks of undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology course. In Study 1, we administered a cumulative multiple-choice test of psychology knowledge, the Intro Psych Test, at the end of the course. To estimate semantic memory networks, we administered two verbal fluency tasks: domain-specific fluency (naming psychology concepts) and domain-general fluency (naming animals). Based on their performance on the Intro Psych Test, we categorized students into a high-knowledge or low-knowledge group, and compared their semantic memory networks. Study 1 (N = 213) found that the high-knowledge group had semantic memory networks that were more clustered, with shorter distances between concepts—across both the domain-specific (psychology) and domain-general (animal) categories—compared to the low-knowledge group. In Study 2 (N = 145), we replicated and extended these findings in a longitudinal study, collecting data near the start and end of the semester. In addition to replicating Study 1, we found the semantic memory networks of high-knowledge students became more interconnected over time, across both domain-general and domain-specific categories. These findings suggest that successful learners show a distinct semantic memory organization—characterized by high connectivity and short path distances between concepts—highlighting the utility of cognitive network science for studying variation in student learning. Full article
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18 pages, 1580 KiB  
Article
Metacognition and Mathematical Modeling Skills: The Mediating Roles of Computational Thinking in High School Students
by Jing Zhang, Yu Zhou, Bin Jing, Zhongling Pi and Hongliang Ma
J. Intell. 2024, 12(6), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12060055 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 238
Abstract
This study was to investigate the relationship between metacognition and the mathematical modeling skills of high school students, as well as the mediating role of computational thinking. A cluster sampling method was adopted to investigate 661 high school students, using the metacognition scale, [...] Read more.
This study was to investigate the relationship between metacognition and the mathematical modeling skills of high school students, as well as the mediating role of computational thinking. A cluster sampling method was adopted to investigate 661 high school students, using the metacognition scale, computational thinking scale, and mathematical modeling skill test questions. The results showed that metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive monitoring had a direct and positive correlation with high school students’ mathematical modeling skills. Additionally, the critical thinking dimension of computational thinking mediated the relationship between metacognitive knowledge, experience, monitoring, and mathematical modeling skills. These findings indicated that sufficient metacognition could improve the critical thinking of high school students’ computational thinking and enhance their mathematical modeling skills. Full article
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17 pages, 1690 KiB  
Article
Can Brief Listening to Mozart’s Music Improve Visual Working Memory? An Update on the Role of Cognitive and Emotional Factors
by Vaitsa Giannouli, Juliana Yordanova and Vasil Kolev
J. Intell. 2024, 12(6), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12060054 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 546
Abstract
The aim of this research was to enhance understanding of the relationship between brief music listening and working memory (WM) functions. The study extends a previous large-scale experiment in which the effects of brief exposure to music on verbal WM were explored. In [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to enhance understanding of the relationship between brief music listening and working memory (WM) functions. The study extends a previous large-scale experiment in which the effects of brief exposure to music on verbal WM were explored. In the present second phase of the experiment, these effects were assessed for the visuospatial subcomponent of WM. For that aim, visuospatial WM was measured using the Corsi blocks task-backwards and Visual Patterns Test in a large sample of 311 young and older adults after being exposed to musical excerpts coming from different music composers (Mozart, Vivaldi, Glass). To account for possible effects of arousal, a silence condition was used. Individual preference for music excerpts and emotional reactions to each condition were also subjectively rated using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to account for the role of emotional reactions in shaping subsequent cognitive performance. Results showed that music affected the visuospatial sketchpad of WM. In line with the previously described Mozart effect, only Mozart’s music had a significant positive impact on visuospatial WM in the two age groups, regardless of preferences, and on overall age-related WM decline in older adults. The Mozart effect was more prominent for the VPT than the Corsi task and was also expressed for the prevailing positive effect. These observations are in contrast to the selective influence of Vivaldi’s music on verbal WM that was detected in our first study. Together, the results demonstrate a differential music influence on the phonological loop and on the visuospatial sketchpad. They thus contribute to the debate of whether music has the potential to affect distinct processes within working memory in an excerpt- or composer-specific manner. Also, they suggest that emotional activation and central executive attention are essentially involved in modulating the influence of music on subsequent cognition. These findings can assist in the selection of music excerpts used in cognitive rehabilitation programs that focus on visuospatial skills. Full article
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18 pages, 566 KiB  
Review
Looking Ahead: Advancing Measurement and Analysis of the Block Design Test Using Technology and Artificial Intelligence
by Kiley McKee, Danielle Rothschild, Stephanie Ruth Young and David H. Uttal
J. Intell. 2024, 12(6), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12060053 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 470
Abstract
The block design test (BDT) has been used for over a century in research and clinical contexts as a measure of spatial cognition, both as a singular ability and as part of more comprehensive intelligence assessment. Traditionally, the BDT has been scored using [...] Read more.
The block design test (BDT) has been used for over a century in research and clinical contexts as a measure of spatial cognition, both as a singular ability and as part of more comprehensive intelligence assessment. Traditionally, the BDT has been scored using methods that do not reflect the full potential of individual differences that could be measured by the test. Recent advancements in technology, including eye-tracking, embedded sensor systems, and artificial intelligence, have provided new opportunities to measure and analyze data from the BDT. In this methodological review, we outline the information that BDT can assess, review several recent advancements in measurement and analytic methods, discuss potential future uses of these methods, and advocate for further research using these methods. Full article
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11 pages, 608 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Thinking Dispositions, Working Memory, and Critical Thinking Ability in Adolescents: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Analysis
by Shuangshuang Li, Ziyue Wang and Yijia Sun
J. Intell. 2024, 12(6), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence12060052 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated that thinking dispositions and working memory are closely related to students’ critical thinking ability. However, little is known about whether bidirectionality between thinking dispositions, working memory, and critical thinking ability exists in adolescence. This study, therefore, explored this aspect [...] Read more.
Previous studies have demonstrated that thinking dispositions and working memory are closely related to students’ critical thinking ability. However, little is known about whether bidirectionality between thinking dispositions, working memory, and critical thinking ability exists in adolescence. This study, therefore, explored this aspect across two time points. Participants were 509 Chinese adolescents (mean age at Time 1 = 14.09 years; 59.7% girls). At Time 1, adolescents were administered the measures of thinking dispositions, working memory, and critical thinking ability. They were reassessed using these measures at Time 2 one year later. The results revealed a bidirectional longitudinal relationship between adolescents’ thinking dispositions and critical thinking ability, suggesting that thinking dispositions at Time 1 predicted critical thinking ability at Time 2; critical thinking ability at Time 1 also predicted subsequent thinking dispositions in adolescents. Furthermore, working memory at Time 1 showed a larger predictive effect on critical thinking ability at Time 2 compared with thinking dispositions at Time 1. These findings underscore the role of early thinking dispositions and working memory in promoting adolescents’ critical thinking ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personality and Individual Differences)
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