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J. Intell., Volume 11, Issue 7 (July 2023) – 23 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Students’ math performance is not only affected by cognitive factors such as working memory, but also by emotional factors such as enjoyment and anxiety. This study investigated how the interplay of working memory with math anxiety and enjoyment explains mathematical performance in primary school students (N = 4471, grades 2–6). We also explored whether these relations differed depending on the type of math test (problem solving or speeded arithmetic) and grade level. Findings showed that higher math anxiety negatively impacted performance more strongly for students with stronger working memory skills, but only on the arithmetic test. No interaction between working memory and enjoyment was found. Most relations were similar across different grade levels. View this paper
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18 pages, 768 KiB  
Article
Delayed Metacomprehension Judgments Do Not Directly Improve Learning from Texts
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070150 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 925
Abstract
Making judgments of learning (JOLs) after studying can directly improve learning. This JOL reactivity has been shown for simple materials but has scarcely been investigated with educationally relevant materials such as expository texts. The few existing studies have not yet reported any consistent [...] Read more.
Making judgments of learning (JOLs) after studying can directly improve learning. This JOL reactivity has been shown for simple materials but has scarcely been investigated with educationally relevant materials such as expository texts. The few existing studies have not yet reported any consistent gains in text comprehension due to providing JOLs. In the present study, we hypothesized that increasing the chances of covert retrieval attempts when making JOLs after each of five to-be-studied text passages would produce comprehension benefits at 1 week compared to restudy. In a between-subjects design, we manipulated both whether participants (N = 210) were instructed to covertly retrieve the texts, and whether they made delayed target-absent JOLs. The results indicated that delayed, target-absent JOLs did not improve text comprehension after 1 week, regardless of whether prior instructions to engage in covert retrieval were provided. Based on the two-stage model of JOLs, we reasoned that participants’ retrieval attempts during metacomprehension judgments were either insufficient (i.e., due to a quick familiarity assessment) or were ineffective (e.g., due to low retrieval success). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metacognition, Learning, and Reactivity)
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15 pages, 1090 KiB  
Article
Metacognitive Awareness and the Hot Hand: When Winning, No Amount of Awareness Will Have Strong Believers Avoid the Heuristic
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070149 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1140
Abstract
In some instances, such as in sports, individuals will cheer on the player with the “hot hand”. But is the hot hand phenomenon a fallacy? The current research investigated (1) whether the hot hand fallacy (HHF) was related to risky decisions during a [...] Read more.
In some instances, such as in sports, individuals will cheer on the player with the “hot hand”. But is the hot hand phenomenon a fallacy? The current research investigated (1) whether the hot hand fallacy (HHF) was related to risky decisions during a gambling scenario, and (2) whether metacognitive awareness might be related to optimal decisions. After measuring for baseline tendencies of using the hot hand heuristic, participants were presented with a series of prior card gambling results that included either winning streaks or losing streaks and asked to choose one of two cards: a good card or a bad card. In addition, we examined whether high metacognitive awareness—as measured by the ability to discriminate between correct and incorrect responses—would be negatively related to the risky decisions induced by the hot hand heuristic. The results showed that our predictions were partially supported. For winning streaks, individuals who had a weak tendency for using the heuristic exhibited fewer risky decisions with higher metacognitive awareness. However, those with a strong baseline tendency for using the hot hand showed no sign of decrease with metacognitive awareness. On the whole, the complex data suggest that further research on the HHF would be helpful for implementing novel ways of avoiding the fallacy, if needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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20 pages, 2128 KiB  
Article
Factorial Validity of the German KABC-II at Ages 7 to 12 in a Clinical Sample: Four Factors Fit Better than Five
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070148 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
Multidimensional intelligence test batteries such as the KABC-II are widely used in clinical practice. Although validity evidence should be provided for all intended uses of a test, data on the factorial validity of the KABC-II mostly relies on the standardization samples and raises [...] Read more.
Multidimensional intelligence test batteries such as the KABC-II are widely used in clinical practice. Although validity evidence should be provided for all intended uses of a test, data on the factorial validity of the KABC-II mostly relies on the standardization samples and raises some concerns about the adequacy of the factor structure. Confirmatory factor analyses of the KABC-II core subtests were conducted in a sample of 627 children who had been assessed in German Centers for Social Pediatrics. The standard structure of the KABC-II was superior to unidimensional models but, as in previous research, evidenced cross-loadings and a high correlation between Planning/Gf and Simultaneous/Gv. Pattern Reasoning was more closely related to Simultaneous/Gv than to Planning/Gf. A four-factorial structure combining subtests from Planning/Gf and Simultaneous/Gv to form a common factor emerged as a better representation of the data. Story Completion showed a secondary loading on Knowledge/Gc. On average, most subtest variance was accounted for by the general factor. Models with bonus points for fast responses generally fitted worse than those without. Clinicians should be aware that Planning/Gf and Simultaneous/Gv measure both visual and fluid abilities. Scales of the KABC-II should not be interpreted as dimensions independent of the general factor. Full article
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22 pages, 1568 KiB  
Article
Test Experience, Direct Instruction, and Their Combination Promote Accurate Beliefs about the Testing Effect
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070147 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Practice testing is a highly robust learning strategy that promotes long-term retention, especially in comparison to more passive strategies such as restudying—a finding referred to as the testing effect. However, learners do not always appreciate the memorial benefits of practice testing over restudying, [...] Read more.
Practice testing is a highly robust learning strategy that promotes long-term retention, especially in comparison to more passive strategies such as restudying—a finding referred to as the testing effect. However, learners do not always appreciate the memorial benefits of practice testing over restudying, which could limit their use of practice testing during self-regulated learning. The current investigation explored the extent to which learners’ metacognitive judgments about the testing effect can be improved via test experience, direct instruction, or a combination of both techniques. Prolific participants underwent two learning cycles. In the first cycle, participants were randomly assigned to either (a) experience a testing effect in their own memory performance (i.e., study unrelated word pairs, practice half the pairs through restudying and half through testing with correct-answer feedback, complete a critical test on the pairs, and receive feedback regarding their performance after using each strategy); (b) imagine they had to learn word pairs and read a passage on the purported benefits of practice testing; or (c) undergo both procedures. In the second cycle, all participants learned a novel set of word pairs. Across both learning cycles, participants estimated memory performance for material learned through testing versus restudying. Both test experience and direct instruction—independently and in combination—led to more accurate memory estimates across learning cycles, but no technique was more effective than the other. In summary, people can learn about the memorial benefits of practice testing when they experience a testing effect on their own memory performance and/or when they receive instruction about its benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metacognition, Learning, and Reactivity)
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16 pages, 782 KiB  
Article
Predicting School Grades: Can Conscientiousness Compensate for Intelligence?
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070146 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2115
Abstract
Intelligence and noncognitive factors such as conscientiousness are strongly related to academic performance. As theory and research differ with respect to their interplay in predicting performance, the present study examines whether conscientiousness compensates for intelligence or enhances the effect of intelligence on performance [...] Read more.
Intelligence and noncognitive factors such as conscientiousness are strongly related to academic performance. As theory and research differ with respect to their interplay in predicting performance, the present study examines whether conscientiousness compensates for intelligence or enhances the effect of intelligence on performance in 3775 13th grade students from Germany. Latent moderation analyses show positive main effects of intelligence and conscientiousness on grades. Further, analyses reveal synergistic interactions in predicting grades in biology, mathematics, and German, but no interaction in predicting grades in English. Intelligence and grades are more strongly linked if students are conscientious. Multigroup models detected gender differences in biology, but no differences with respect to SES. In biology, conscientiousness has especially strong effects in intelligent men. Conscientiousness thus enhances the effect of intelligence on performance in several subjects. Full article
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33 pages, 872 KiB  
Article
The Meso-Expression Test (MET): A Novel Assessment of Emotion Perception
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070145 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2699
Abstract
Emotion perception is a primary facet of Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the underpinning of interpersonal communication. In this study, we examined meso-expressions—the everyday, moderate-intensity emotions communicated through the face, voice, and body. We theoretically distinguished meso-expressions from other well-known emotion research paradigms (i.e., [...] Read more.
Emotion perception is a primary facet of Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the underpinning of interpersonal communication. In this study, we examined meso-expressions—the everyday, moderate-intensity emotions communicated through the face, voice, and body. We theoretically distinguished meso-expressions from other well-known emotion research paradigms (i.e., macro-expression and micro-expressions). In Study 1, we demonstrated that people can reliably discriminate between meso-expressions, and we created a corpus of 914 unique video displays of meso-expressions across a race- and gender-diverse set of expressors. In Study 2, we developed a novel video-based assessment of emotion perception ability: The Meso-Expression Test (MET). In this study, we found that the MET is psychometrically valid and demonstrated measurement equivalence across Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White perceiver groups and across men and women. In Study 3, we examined the construct validity of the MET and showed that it converged with other well-known measures of emotion perception and diverged from cognitive ability. Finally, in Study 4, we showed that the MET is positively related to important psychosocial outcomes, including social well-being, social connectedness, and empathic concern and is negatively related to alexithymia, stress, depression, anxiety, and adverse social interactions. We conclude with a discussion focused on the implications of our findings for EI ability research and the practical applications of the MET. Full article
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26 pages, 1352 KiB  
Review
Boosting Creativity through Users’ Avatars and Contexts in Virtual Environments—A Systematic Review of Recent Research
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070144 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2190
Abstract
As an artificial space extended from the physical environment, the virtual environment (VE) provides more possibilities for humans to work and be entertained with less physical restrictions. Benefiting from anonymity, one of the important features of VEs, users are able to receive visual [...] Read more.
As an artificial space extended from the physical environment, the virtual environment (VE) provides more possibilities for humans to work and be entertained with less physical restrictions. Benefiting from anonymity, one of the important features of VEs, users are able to receive visual stimuli that might differ from the physical environment through digital representations presented in VEs. Avatars and contextual cues in VEs can be considered as digital representations of users and contexts. In this article, we analyzed 21 articles that examined the creativity-boosting effects of different digital user and contextual representations. We summarized the main effects induced by these two digital representations, notably the effect induced by the self-similar avatar, Proteus effect, avatar with Social Identity Cues, priming effect induced by contextual representation, and embodied metaphorical effect. In addition, we examined the influence of immersion on creativity by comparing non-immersive and immersive VEs (i.e., desktop VE and headset VE, respectively). Last, we discussed the roles of embodiment and presence in the creativity in VEs, which were overlooked in the past research. Full article
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16 pages, 1069 KiB  
Article
Assessing Cognitive Skills in Early Childhood Education Using a Bilingual Early Language Learner Assessment Tool
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070143 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 3358
Abstract
In this article, we propose that basic cognitive skills may be fostered and assessed in early childhood educational (pre-K) settings using a technology-based approach to assessment. BELLA (Bilingual English Language Learner Assessment), designed for use with both monolingual (English or Spanish speaking) and [...] Read more.
In this article, we propose that basic cognitive skills may be fostered and assessed in early childhood educational (pre-K) settings using a technology-based approach to assessment. BELLA (Bilingual English Language Learner Assessment), designed for use with both monolingual (English or Spanish speaking) and bilingual (English and Spanish speaking) children, is designed to attend to cognitive skill development in addition to (pre-)academic knowledge. Specifically, BELLA assesses analytical, creative, and practical thinking in 3–5-year-old children through unique item content and delivery. BELLA is among the first tablet-based pre-K assessments designed to assess cognitive skills needed for the era of the Anthropocene. Full article
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23 pages, 1603 KiB  
Article
Blocked Presentation Leads Participants to Overutilize Domain Familiarity as a Cue for Judgments of Learning (JOLs)
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070142 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
The accuracy of judgments of learning (JOLs) is vital for efficient self-regulated learning. We examined a situation in which participants overutilize their prior knowledge of a topic (“domain familiarity”) as a basis for JOLs, resulting in substantial overconfidence in topics they know the [...] Read more.
The accuracy of judgments of learning (JOLs) is vital for efficient self-regulated learning. We examined a situation in which participants overutilize their prior knowledge of a topic (“domain familiarity”) as a basis for JOLs, resulting in substantial overconfidence in topics they know the most about. College students rank ordered their knowledge across ten different domains and studied, judged, and then completed a test on facts from those domains. Recall and JOLs were linearly related to self-rated knowledge, as was overconfidence: participants were most overconfident for topics they knew more about, indicating the overutilization of domain familiarity as a cue for JOLs. We examined aspects of the task that might contribute to this pattern, including the order of the task phases and whether participants studied the facts blocked by topic. Although participants used domain familiarity as a cue for JOLs regardless of task design, we found that studying facts from multiple topics blocked by topic led them to overutilize this cue. In contrast, whether participants completed the rank ordering before studying the facts or received a warning about this tendency did not alter the pattern. The relative accuracy of participants’ JOLs, however, was not related to domain familiarity under any conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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44 pages, 1085 KiB  
Review
Non-Cognitive Specificities of Intellectually Gifted Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of the Literature
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070141 - 15 Jul 2023
Viewed by 5102
Abstract
For several years, there was a growing interest in intellectual giftedness and in particular in the non-cognitive specificities of gifted individuals. This topic attracted much public attention and sometimes led to contradictions with the scientific literature. The current review synthesizes a broad set [...] Read more.
For several years, there was a growing interest in intellectual giftedness and in particular in the non-cognitive specificities of gifted individuals. This topic attracted much public attention and sometimes led to contradictions with the scientific literature. The current review synthesizes a broad set of results related to non-cognitive specificities of intellectual gifted in children and adolescents. This synthesis of scientific research on giftedness and its associated non-cognitive features does not support the conclusion that there is a stable profile across gifted individuals that would consistently separate them from non-gifted individuals. A few specificities in some areas are noted, but they are not necessarily being systematic. These specificities often turn out to be in favor of gifted youth, contrary to the view sometimes defended in the general public that gifted individuals suffer from major everyday difficulties. Finally, methodological issues are listed regarding the designs of existing studies, with recommendations for future research in the field. Full article
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22 pages, 2100 KiB  
Article
Performing for Better Communication: Creativity, Cognitive-Emotional Skills and Embodied Language in Primary Schools
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070140 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2070
Abstract
While the diversity and complexity of the links between creativity and emotional skills as well as their effects on cognitive processes are now established, few approaches to implementing them in schools have been evaluated. Within the framework of the enactive paradigm, which considers [...] Read more.
While the diversity and complexity of the links between creativity and emotional skills as well as their effects on cognitive processes are now established, few approaches to implementing them in schools have been evaluated. Within the framework of the enactive paradigm, which considers the complexity and dynamics of language as a cognitive process, we study how an approach based on performative theatre can synergistically stimulate creativity (artistic, bodily and linguistic), emotional skills (identifying and understanding emotions) and executive functions (especially inhibition, cognitive flexibility and emotional control), all as components defined in the context of oral communication. Stimulating this synergy in the context of foreign language teaching may be especially beneficial for children with communication disorders. This paper presents the first results of the CELAVIE pilot study (Creativity, Empathy and Emotions in Language learning with Autism for an Inclusive Education) through a case study of a pupil with a neurodevelopmental disorder included in a 4th-grade class. The results show a progression in oral communication in English as a Foreign Language (EFL), in emotional skills and creativity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotional Intelligence and Creativity)
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12 pages, 603 KiB  
Article
Does Interactive Imagery Influence the Reactive Effect of Judgments of Learning on Memory?
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070139 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 877
Abstract
Making judgments of learning (JOLs) while studying is a useful tool for students to evaluate the status of their learning. Additionally, in associative learning contexts, JOLs can directly benefit learning when the to-be-learned information is related. One explanation for this reactive effect is [...] Read more.
Making judgments of learning (JOLs) while studying is a useful tool for students to evaluate the status of their learning. Additionally, in associative learning contexts, JOLs can directly benefit learning when the to-be-learned information is related. One explanation for this reactive effect is that making JOLs strengthens the associative relationship, leading to enhanced memory performance when a test relies on that relationship (e.g., cued-recall tests). In the present research, we evaluated whether having students make interactive mental images—another strategy that can increase the strength of a cue–target relationship—impacts the reactive effect of JOLs on learning. Students studied word pairs that were related and unrelated. Half of the students were instructed to form a mental image of the words interacting, whereas the other half were not. Additionally, in each group half of the students made a JOL for each pair, whereas half did not. Following a short delay, students completed a cued-recall test. Consistent with prior research, students who made JOLs remembered more related word pairs than did students who did not. By contrast, students who made JOLs recalled fewer unrelated word pairs than did students who did not. Moreover, although students who formed interactive images demonstrated enhanced memory relative to students who did not, interactive imagery did not impact the reactive effect of JOLs. These outcomes are informative for existing theory of JOL reactivity. Specifically, JOLs may only benefit learning of associative information when it has a pre-existing semantic relationship (e.g., related word pairs) and not when that that relationship is created by the learner (e.g., by forming interactive images). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metacognition, Learning, and Reactivity)
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12 pages, 554 KiB  
Article
Becoming Self-Aware of Feelings and Performance: The Influence of Creative Potential, Self-Evaluations, and Metacognitive Feelings on Creative Mindsets
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070138 - 12 Jul 2023
Viewed by 858
Abstract
Based on a recently developed model of creative cognition, we tested in two studies, the relationships between creative potential, self-evaluations, metacognitive feelings, and growth and fixed mindsets in creative action. In both studies, participants (N = 491, mean = 21.57, SD = 2.78 [...] Read more.
Based on a recently developed model of creative cognition, we tested in two studies, the relationships between creative potential, self-evaluations, metacognitive feelings, and growth and fixed mindsets in creative action. In both studies, participants (N = 491, mean = 21.57, SD = 2.78 and N = 280, 94% between the ages of 18 and 25 years, respectively, for studies 1 and 2) first completed a divergent thinking task, followed by an assessment of metacognitive feelings, self-evaluations of the creativity of the ideas generated (only in study 2), and creative mindsets while knowing that a second divergent thinking task was coming. Results showed that creative mindsets were sensitive to variations in creative potential, self-evaluations, and metacognitive feelings when examined in creative action. Specifically, studies 1 and 2 showed positive relationships between metacognitive feelings and growth mindsets. Results from study 2 showed positive relationships between self-evaluations of the idea generated and growth mindsets. For fixed mindsets, the creative potential of task 1 had a negative relationship in study 1 and a negative relationship between fixed mindsets and the creative potential of task 2 in study 2. The implications for creative metacognition were explored. Full article
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12 pages, 879 KiB  
Article
Bootstrap Exploratory Graph Analysis of the WISC–V with a Clinical Sample
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070137 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1281
Abstract
One important aspect of construct validity is structural validity. Structural validity refers to the degree to which scores of a psychological test are a reflection of the dimensionality of the construct being measured. A factor analysis, which assumes that unobserved latent variables are [...] Read more.
One important aspect of construct validity is structural validity. Structural validity refers to the degree to which scores of a psychological test are a reflection of the dimensionality of the construct being measured. A factor analysis, which assumes that unobserved latent variables are responsible for the covariation among observed test scores, has traditionally been employed to provide structural validity evidence. Factor analytic studies have variously suggested either four or five dimensions for the WISC–V and it is unlikely that any new factor analytic study will resolve this dimensional dilemma. Unlike a factor analysis, an exploratory graph analysis (EGA) does not assume a common latent cause of covariances between test scores. Rather, an EGA identifies dimensions by locating strongly connected sets of scores that form coherent sub-networks within the overall network. Accordingly, the present study employed a bootstrap EGA technique to investigate the structure of the 10 WISC–V primary subtests using a large clinical sample (N = 7149) with a mean age of 10.7 years and a standard deviation of 2.8 years. The resulting structure was composed of four sub-networks that paralleled the first-order factor structure reported in many studies where the fluid reasoning and visual–spatial dimensions merged into a single dimension. These results suggest that discrepant construct and scoring structures exist for the WISC–V that potentially raise serious concerns about the test interpretations of psychologists who employ the test structure preferred by the publisher. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construct Validity of the WISC)
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17 pages, 406 KiB  
Article
Towards an Integrative Model of Math Cognition: Interactions between Working Memory and Emotions in Explaining Children’s Math Performance
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070136 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Individual variation in mathematical skills can be ascribed to differences in cognitive ability, but also to students’ emotional experiences of mathematics, such as enjoyment and anxiety. The current study investigated how the interplay of working memory with math anxiety and enjoyment explains mathematical [...] Read more.
Individual variation in mathematical skills can be ascribed to differences in cognitive ability, but also to students’ emotional experiences of mathematics, such as enjoyment and anxiety. The current study investigated how the interplay of working memory with math anxiety and enjoyment explains mathematical performance in primary school students. We also explored whether these relations differed with the type of math test and students’ age. Using mixed effect models, we reanalyzed data from 4471 Dutch primary school students (grades 2–6) who had completed two computerized working memory tasks, had filled out a questionnaire on math emotions, and had completed two math tests: story problems and speeded arithmetic. Findings showed that working memory, anxiety, and enjoyment were linear (but not curvilinear) predictors of performance on both tests, while some relations were stronger for the math (story)-problem-solving test. Higher math anxiety negatively impacted performance more strongly for students with stronger working memory skills, but only on the arithmetic test. No interaction between working memory and enjoyment was found. The relation between math anxiety and math performance increased with grade level, but no other age-related changes were found. Interpretations and recommendations focus on situated views on learning and emotion. Full article
15 pages, 3389 KiB  
Article
Image Clarity Affects Tip-of-the-Tongue Rates for Faces
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070135 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 910
Abstract
Tip-of-the-tongue states are subjective experiences that unrecalled target words will be remembered. This study investigates if the visual fluency of familiar faces affects the likelihood of tip-of-the-tongue experiences (TOTs) as well as name recall and name recognition. To manipulate visual fluency, three levels [...] Read more.
Tip-of-the-tongue states are subjective experiences that unrecalled target words will be remembered. This study investigates if the visual fluency of familiar faces affects the likelihood of tip-of-the-tongue experiences (TOTs) as well as name recall and name recognition. To manipulate visual fluency, three levels of clarity for 396 celebrity faces were set: high, medium, and low clarity. Four hundred and twenty-nine participants were asked to recall the last names of the celebrities for all clarity levels, and, if they did not recall, to indicate if they experienced a TOT. Following the TOT question, they performed a name recognition test. Results showed that higher-clarity faces resulted in higher TOT rates than lower-clarity faces for unrecalled faces. Name recall was also higher for clearer faces. However, clarity level did not affect the correct answer rate on the name recognition test. These results support the view that perceptual cue-based factors influence TOT experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Intersection of Metacognition and Intelligence)
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17 pages, 833 KiB  
Article
The Purposes of Intellectual Assessment in Early Childhood Education: An Analysis of Chilean Regulations
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070134 - 06 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1609
Abstract
The main purpose of intellectual assessment in early childhood education is the early detection of intellectual disabilities. In Chile, the recent school integration policy has incorporated assessment purposes oriented toward educational improvement, but it is not known how these purposes interact with each [...] Read more.
The main purpose of intellectual assessment in early childhood education is the early detection of intellectual disabilities. In Chile, the recent school integration policy has incorporated assessment purposes oriented toward educational improvement, but it is not known how these purposes interact with each other. This study aimed to analyze the purposes of intellectual assessment present in the current Chilean educational policy in early childhood education. A systematic review of ministerial documents and a subsequent qualitative content analysis of official documents published between 1998 and 2022 were carried out. The results revealed that the purposes of intellectual assessment for educational policy are multiple, highlighting the provision eligibility, diagnosis, student monitoring and support, in addition to formative and curricular adjustment purposes. It is discussed how this multiplicity of purposes is congruent with the current regulations governing intellectual assessment procedures in early childhood education. It is concluded that there is a need to update the legislation that regulates intellectual assessment to be consistent with the new assessment proposals in the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusive Education and Intellectual Disabilities)
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22 pages, 3389 KiB  
Article
Testing the Reciprocal Effect between Value of Education, Time Investment, and Academic Achievement in a Large Non-Western Sample
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070133 - 04 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Many theories of motivation suggest that motivation and academic achievement reinforce each other over time, yet few longitudinal studies have examined behavioral pathways that may mediate interplay from motivation to achievement. Moreover, empirical studies so far have mostly focused on Western countries. In [...] Read more.
Many theories of motivation suggest that motivation and academic achievement reinforce each other over time, yet few longitudinal studies have examined behavioral pathways that may mediate interplay from motivation to achievement. Moreover, empirical studies so far have mostly focused on Western countries. In this study, we first examined whether students’ value of education, as a measure of motivation, is reciprocally related to achievement (class rank and self-rated performance) in a sample of junior high schoolers in an East-Asian country (N = 3445, Korean Youth Panel Study). We tested this reciprocity using different statistical models. Second, we investigated whether the relation between motivation and achievement was mediated by time invested in learning. Reciprocal effects between value of education and academic achievement were found in classic cross-lagged panel models, but only unilateral effects (from achievement to value of education) were found when we used random-intercept and random-curve cross-lagged panel models. Adding the time investment variable, the reciprocal effect between value of education, time investment, and academic achievement was found with the random intercept model. In conclusion, the reciprocity between of motivation and achievement are more elusive than previous research suggested; further studies should be dedicated to scrutinizing its existence with various statistical models. Full article
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12 pages, 624 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Dispositional Mindfulness and Relative Accuracy of Judgments of Learning: The Moderating Role of Test Anxiety
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070132 - 04 Jul 2023
Viewed by 994
Abstract
Research has demonstrated that metacognition accuracy is far from perfect. The accuracy of judgments of learning (JOLs) is of critical importance in self-regulated learning. To explore what factors constrain JOL accuracy, the current study focused on mindfulness, which is intimately related to metacognition [...] Read more.
Research has demonstrated that metacognition accuracy is far from perfect. The accuracy of judgments of learning (JOLs) is of critical importance in self-regulated learning. To explore what factors constrain JOL accuracy, the current study focused on mindfulness, which is intimately related to metacognition and anxiety. A total of 203 undergraduates (198 valid samples) were recruited to determine the relationships among five dimensions of dispositional mindfulness, test anxiety, and relative accuracy of JOLs. Results revealed that the interaction term for acting with awareness and test anxiety significantly predicted JOL accuracy. Further analyses indicated that for individuals with high test anxiety, but not for those with low test anxiety, acting with awareness positively predicted JOL accuracy. Considering that dispositional mindfulness is modifiable, these results help to inspire researchers to further explore whether mindfulness training can be used as a remedy to improve JOL accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metacognition, Learning, and Reactivity)
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24 pages, 2340 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Prompts and Feedback on the Performance during Multi-Session Self-Regulated Learning in the Hypermedia Environment
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070131 - 04 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
The hypermedia environment is among the most prevalent contemporary self-regulated learning (SRL) environments; however, methods for improving the effectiveness of students’ multi-session SRL in such environments remain under discussion. In this study, two experiments were conducted to explore whether and how prompts and [...] Read more.
The hypermedia environment is among the most prevalent contemporary self-regulated learning (SRL) environments; however, methods for improving the effectiveness of students’ multi-session SRL in such environments remain under discussion. In this study, two experiments were conducted to explore whether and how prompts and feedback benefit performance during multi-session SRL in a hypermedia learning environment. A total of 76 senior students participated in Experiment 1, which used a mixed 2 (prompting condition: prompt, no prompt) × 2 (feedback condition: feedback, no feedback) × 2 (learning session: Session 1 and Session 2) design to explore the effects of prompting and feedback on the multi-session learning process in a hypermedia environment. The results indicated that, in learning Session 1, performance in the prompt condition was significantly better than in the unprompted condition, with or without feedback; in learning Session 2, participants in the prompt condition with feedback performed significantly better than those in the other three conditions. Students in the group with a prompt and feedback had the most accurate meta-comprehension absolute accuracy in both learning sessions. Experiment 2 recruited 94 secondary school students to further explore whether the combination of prompts and different types of feedback led to different learning outcomes according to the division of feedback timing. A mixed 2 (prompt condition: prompt, no prompt) × 3 (feedback condition: delayed feedback, immediate feedback, no feedback) × 2 (learning session: Session 1 and Session 2) design was used. The results indicated that, in learning Session 1, the prompt condition outperformed the unprompted condition with or without feedback; in learning Session 2, students with prompted delayed feedback outperformed the other five conditions. We also found that although there was no significant difference in meta-comprehension monitoring accuracy between delayed and immediate feedback, both groups performed significantly better than those in the no feedback condition. These results suggest that the combination of prompts and feedback in hypermedia environments facilitates student performance better than prompts or feedback alone; this improvement may be related to the correction of poor internal student feedback. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metacognition, Learning, and Reactivity)
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31 pages, 5848 KiB  
Article
Does Expecting Matter? The Impact of Experimentally Established Expectations on Subsequent Memory Retrieval of Emotional Words
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070130 - 01 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
Previous studies have confirmed that different degrees of expectation, including the bipolarity of the expected and unexpected, as well as an intermediate level (no expectation), can affect memory. However, only a few investigations have manipulated expectation through experimentally established schema, with no consideration [...] Read more.
Previous studies have confirmed that different degrees of expectation, including the bipolarity of the expected and unexpected, as well as an intermediate level (no expectation), can affect memory. However, only a few investigations have manipulated expectation through experimentally established schema, with no consideration of how expectation impacts both item and source memory. Furthermore, stimulus emotionality may also impact memory. Therefore, we conducted a study to investigate the effects of three levels of expectation on item and source memory while considering the impact of stimulus emotionality. The experiment began with a phase dedicated to learning the rules. In the subsequent study phase, negative and neutral words were manipulated as expected, no expectation, and unexpected, based on these rules. This was followed by tasks focused on item and source memory. The study found that there was a “U-shape” relationship between expectation and item memory. Additionally, the study revealed the distinct impacts of expectation on item and source memory. When it came to item memory, both expected and unexpected words were better remembered than those with no expectations. In source memory, expected words showed memory inferiority for expectation-irrelevant source information, but an advantage for expectation-relevant source information. Stimulus emotionality modulated the effect of expectation on both item and source memory. Our findings provide behavioral evidence for the schema-linked interactions between medial prefrontal and medial temporal regions (SLIMM) theory, which proposes that congruent and incongruent events enhance memory through different brain regions. The different patterns between item and source memory also support dual-process models. Moreover, we speculate that processing events with varying levels of emotionality may undermine the impact of expectation, as implied by other neural investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metacognition, Learning, and Reactivity)
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17 pages, 663 KiB  
Article
Sharing Perceptual Experiences through Language
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070129 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
The aim of this article is to shed light on how sensory perceptions are communicated through authentic language. What are the language resources available to match multimodal perceptions, and how do we use them in real communication? We discuss insights from previous work [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to shed light on how sensory perceptions are communicated through authentic language. What are the language resources available to match multimodal perceptions, and how do we use them in real communication? We discuss insights from previous work on the topic of the interaction of perception, cognition, and language and explain how language users recontextualise perception in communication about sensory experiences. Within the framework of cognitive semantics, we show that the complexities of multimodal perception are clearly reflected in the multifunctional use of words to convey meanings and feelings. To showcase the language resources employed, we base our findings on research on how architects convey their perceptions of built space. Two main patterns emerge: they use multimodal expressions (soft, bland, and jarring) and descriptions of built space through motion (the building reaches out, or routes and directions such as destination, promenade, route, or landscape in combination with verbs such as start and lead) in which case the architect may either be the observer or the emerged actor. The important take-home message is that there is no neat and clear a priori link between words and meanings, but rather “unforeseen” patterns surface in natural production data describing sensory perceptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grounding Cognition in Perceptual Experience)
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20 pages, 1438 KiB  
Concept Paper
Artificial Neural Networks and the Actiotope Model of Giftedness—Clever Solutions from Complex Environments
J. Intell. 2023, 11(7), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11070128 - 25 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1267
Abstract
Since its inception, the Actiotope Model of Giftedness (AMG) has provided researchers with a useful model to explain the development of exceptionality. Rather than a focus on the individual, the model postulates that exceptionality is the outcome of a system that includes complex [...] Read more.
Since its inception, the Actiotope Model of Giftedness (AMG) has provided researchers with a useful model to explain the development of exceptionality. Rather than a focus on the individual, the model postulates that exceptionality is the outcome of a system that includes complex interactions between an individual’s current level of talent and their internal and external environment. To date, however, the statistical techniques that have been used to investigate the model, including linear regression and structural equation modeling, are unable to fully operationalize the systemic nature of these interactions. In order to fully realize the predictive potential and application of the AMG, we outline the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to model the complex interactions and suggest that such networks can provide additional insights into the development of exceptionality. In addition to supporting continued research into the AMG, the use of ANNs has the potential to provide educators with evidence-based strategies to support student learning at both an individual and whole-school level. Full article
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