2. Religion and Displaced Persons Arriving in Austria in Recent Years
4.1. Religious Affiliation and Religiosity
4.3. Social Attitudes and Religiosity
4.4. Religion and First Steps in the Host Society
4.5. Collective and Individual Religious Identity
4.6. The Role of Religion and Religious Communities in the Wake of the European ‘Refugee Crisis’
Conflicts of Interest
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E.g., in Syria, president Assad has been alleged to favor the Shia Alawites over other affiliations, particularly the country’s Sunni majority. Persecution of religious minorities (both Islamic and of different traditions) has been particularly rampant in the areas conquered by the Islamic State (ISIS) terrorist organization. Religious identity is thus a sensitive issue for many Syrians, as well as for Iraqis and other refugees arriving from areas where sectarian violence has been virulent.
Proportion of Muslims in the country of origin: 99.7% in Afghanistan, 99% in Iraq, and 92.8% in Syria, 48.8% in Nigeria, and 99% in Somalia (PEW 2012a).
They have officially been granted either asylum status under the Geneva Convention or subsidiary protection or other humanitarian protection. Among them, one in two had Syrian nationality (49%), one in two Afghan (18%). Iraqis and Iranians comprised only a small proportion of positive asylum applications in 2015–2017 (7% and 3% respectively).
“Diverse, desperate migrants have divided European Christians” in The Economist, September 6, 2015 (The Economist 2015).
As the survey includes also information on spouses and children, in total 1391 individuals were captured in the survey, 972 of them living in Austria at the time of the interview and 419 living abroad (Buber-Ennser et al. 2016).
Most telephone numbers provided at the time of the interview in 2015 were no longer valid.
We refer to https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0163481.s004 for the English questionnaire.
The exact wording of the question was: “Apart from the fact of belonging to a religious community or not, how religious do you consider yourself?”.
The Austrian GGS carried out in 2008/09 comprises 5001 men and women aged 18 to 45 years. The survey on “Quality of Life in Vienna” was conducted in 2012/2013 and interviewed 8400 individuals.
Quality of Life in Vienna survey 2012/13.
Mostly of Turkish and Bosnian origin.
However, at the time of the survey, the ISIS did not occupy large parts of Syria and Iraq, and attacks by Muslim fundamentalists in Europe were less frequent compared to 2015. Therefore, Viennese Muslims may not have felt worried at the time of the survey about being mistaken for extremists if they reported being very religious.
12% were not religious at all, and 11% reported having low levels of religiosity.
Shiah Islam is believed to be closer to Christianity culturally and in the scriptures compared to other Muslim sects.
|Refugee population||Low level (1–2)||24%||4%||20%|
|Medium level (3–8)||67%||78%||69%|
|Very religious (9–10)||9%||18%||11%|
|Austrian population||Low level 2 (0–2)||27%||20%||23%|
|Medium level (3–8)||66%||66%||66%|
|Very religious (9–10)||7%||14%||10%|
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