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Article

Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Fields at 27 GHz on Sperm Quality of Mytilus galloprovincialis

1
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Androne 81, 95124 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Electrical, Electronics, and Computer Engineering (DIEEI), University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
3
Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Telecomunicazioni (CNIT), Viale G.P. Usberti, 181/A Pal. 3, 43124 Parma, Italy
4
Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Sicily “A. Mirri”, Via Gino Marinuzzi, 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy
5
Department of Marine Sciences, University of the Aegean, University Hill, 81100 Mytilene, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Nick Aldred
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(4), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10040521
Received: 9 January 2022 / Revised: 4 April 2022 / Accepted: 7 April 2022 / Published: 9 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Marine Biology)
Recently, an increasing use of wireless internet technologies has been demonstrated. The devices which use these technologies emit in new spectral regions an electromagnetic radiation (EMF) which could interact with the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effect of electromagnetic fields at 27 GHz on sperm quality in Mytilus galloprovincialis. Sperm samples were collected from sexually mature males of M. galloprovincialis and placed in seawater. Once we evaluated the number and quality of spermatozoa, sperm cells were exposed to electromagnetic fields radiated by a pyramidal horn antenna. The effect of exposure was evaluated after 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 min by a light microscope and using an Eosin test. Ten replications were performed for each time series, and statistical analysis was carried out by t-test. Sperm motility decreased after 10 min of exposure, and after 30 min most of the spermatozoa were immobile and not vital. This study provides useful data on the potential ecological impact of the high-band 5G on animal fertility, the effect of which is currently under investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: mussel; vitality; motility; millimeter waves; specific absorption rate (SAR) mussel; vitality; motility; millimeter waves; specific absorption rate (SAR)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pecoraro, R.; Pavone, S.C.; Scalisi, E.M.; Sica, C.; Ignoto, S.; Contino, M.; Salvaggio, A.; Marmara, D.; Sorbello, G.; Di Donato, L.; Brundo, M.V. Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Fields at 27 GHz on Sperm Quality of Mytilus galloprovincialis. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10, 521. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10040521

AMA Style

Pecoraro R, Pavone SC, Scalisi EM, Sica C, Ignoto S, Contino M, Salvaggio A, Marmara D, Sorbello G, Di Donato L, Brundo MV. Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Fields at 27 GHz on Sperm Quality of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2022; 10(4):521. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10040521

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pecoraro, Roberta, Santi Concetto Pavone, Elena Maria Scalisi, Carmen Sica, Sara Ignoto, Martina Contino, Antonio Salvaggio, Dimitra Marmara, Gino Sorbello, Loreto Di Donato, and Maria Violetta Brundo. 2022. "Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Fields at 27 GHz on Sperm Quality of Mytilus galloprovincialis" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 10, no. 4: 521. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10040521

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