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Agriculture 2018, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture8010012

Agroecological, Land-Elevation and Socioeconomic Determinants of Raising Livestock in Bangladesh

School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract

This paper determines the influence of agroecological, land-elevation and socioeconomic factors in the raising of different types of livestock in Bangladesh using nationwide sub-district level data from two Agriculture and Livestock Censuses of 1996 and 2008, by applying a simultaneous equations model. Results reveal that socioeconomic, land-elevation and agroecological factors exert significant but varied influence on the type of livestock raised by householders. The number of cattle, goat/sheep and poultry raised per household are significantly higher for medium and small farms as well as for wage-labour households. Cattle raised per household is significantly higher for non-farm households, whereas poultry raised is significantly lower. Gross-cropped area, literacy rate and research and development (R&D) investment significantly influence the number of cattle raised per household, whereas population density negatively influences the number of goat and poultry raised per household. The number of cattle and goat/sheep raised per household is significantly higher in the Old Himalayan Floodplain, whereas poultry-raising is significantly higher in the Eastern Hills and seven other agroecologies. Raising all types of livestock is significantly lower in low-lying areas. The number of cattle raised per household is significantly higher at high land elevation, but significantly lower in medium-low land and low-lying areas. On the other hand, the number of goat/sheep and poultry raised per household is significantly higher in medium-high land areas and significantly lower in low-lying areas. The policy implications of these results will be relevant to investments in R&D, education, tenurial reform and measures to promote different types of livestock suited to specific agroecology and land-elevation levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: livestock; agroecological characteristics; socioeconomic factors; simultaneous equations model; three-stage least squares regression; Bangladesh livestock; agroecological characteristics; socioeconomic factors; simultaneous equations model; three-stage least squares regression; Bangladesh
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rahman, S. Agroecological, Land-Elevation and Socioeconomic Determinants of Raising Livestock in Bangladesh. Agriculture 2018, 8, 12.

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