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Article

Finite Element and Applied Models of the Stem with Spike Deformation

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Department of Rector, Don State Technical University, Gagarin Sq. 1, 344003 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
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Agribusiness Faculty, Don State Technical University, Gagarin Sq. 1, 344003 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
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Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Leninsky Avenue 32a, 119334 Moscow, Russia
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FSBSI Agricultural Research Center “Donskoy”, Nauchny Gorodok Str. 3, 347740 Zernograd, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William A. Payne
Agriculture 2021, 11(11), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11111147
Received: 23 September 2021 / Revised: 18 October 2021 / Accepted: 12 November 2021 / Published: 16 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Agricultural Technology)
This article examines the static and dynamic deformation of the stem of an ear of wheat and of the individual grain. The purpose of the article is to determine the factors of influence on the ear of wheat to isolate the grain. Two stages of grain ripening are considered: in the early stage, the grain is attached to the spike by the stem; in the second, there is no stem, and the grain is attached to the ear by the scales. The ear fluctuations are considered within the Euler–Bernoulli bar theory. The developed model divides the study of the dynamics of the stem of an ear and the dynamics of the grain into two stages. The first stage studies the dynamics of the plant as a whole, while the second stage studies the dynamics of an individual grain in a moving system associated with the ear in bending and vertical fluctuation forms. The model of the ear and the grain fluctuation uses the mechanical characteristics of elastic bonds and elastic bodies, which are determined by spring stiffness, elastic moduli, etc. The results show that in the vertical forms of grain fluctuation, the frequency of fluctuation is much higher than in the bending ones. This article presents the natural fluctuation frequencies of grain at full ripeness and in the early phases of maturation, at which point it is released from the ear. View Full-Text
Keywords: harvest; grain of wheat; ear of grain; mathematical model; early stages of maturation; ear fluctuations harvest; grain of wheat; ear of grain; mathematical model; early stages of maturation; ear fluctuations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Meskhi, B.; Rudoy, D.; Lachuga, Y.; Pakhomov, V.; Soloviev, A.; Matrosov, A.; Panfilov, I.; Maltseva, T. Finite Element and Applied Models of the Stem with Spike Deformation. Agriculture 2021, 11, 1147. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11111147

AMA Style

Meskhi B, Rudoy D, Lachuga Y, Pakhomov V, Soloviev A, Matrosov A, Panfilov I, Maltseva T. Finite Element and Applied Models of the Stem with Spike Deformation. Agriculture. 2021; 11(11):1147. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11111147

Chicago/Turabian Style

Meskhi, Besarion, Dmitry Rudoy, Yuri Lachuga, Viktor Pakhomov, Arkady Soloviev, Andrey Matrosov, Ivan Panfilov, and Tatyana Maltseva. 2021. "Finite Element and Applied Models of the Stem with Spike Deformation" Agriculture 11, no. 11: 1147. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11111147

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