Next Article in Journal
Polymorphisms in ERCC5 rs17655 and ERCC1 rs735482 Genes Associated with the Survival of Male Patients with Postoperative Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated with Adjuvant Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy
Previous Article in Journal
Eye Gaze Markers Indicate Visual Attention to Threatening Images in Individuals with Chronic Back Pain
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8010032

Influence of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Carotid and Femoral Atherosclerotic Plaque Volume as Measured by Three-Dimensional Ultrasound

1
Department of Internal Medicine III (Cardiology, Angiology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstr. 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
Department of Internal Medicine IV (Nephrology and Hypertension), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstr. 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Clinical centre of Traunstein, D-83278 Traunstein, Germany
4
Department of Internal Medicine, Central Hospital of Bolzano, I-39100 Bolzano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 31 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Vascular Medicine)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1008 KB, uploaded 3 January 2019]   |  

Abstract

Background: Atherosclerosis is a systemic multifocal disease with a preference for the branching points of the arteries. In this study, we quantitatively measured carotid and femoral plaque volume in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and/or established atherosclerotic disease using a 3D ultrasound technique. Methods: In this prospective, single-centre study, we included 404 patients (median age 64; 56.9% men) with at least one CVRF or established cardiovascular disease. Plaque volume was measured using 3D ultrasound equipped with an automated software. Results: We found a strong correlation of plaque volume with CVRF and the number of vascular beds involved. The strongest associations with total and femoral plaque volume were noted for smoking, hypertension, age, as well as for the presence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (p < 0.05). Carotid plaque volume was best predicted by hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, age, as well as the presence of cerebrovascular disease and coronary artery disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that smoking appears to be associated with total and femoral plaque volume, whereas hyperlipidaemia seems to be associated with carotid plaque volume. Measurement of 3D plaque volume is a practical and reproducible technique with the potential to become an additional screening tool in cardiovascular risk stratification. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular clinical research; ultrasound cardiovascular risk factors; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular clinical research; ultrasound
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Noflatscher, M.; Schreinlechner, M.; Sommer, P.; Kerschbaum, J.; Berggren, K.; Theurl, M.; Kirchmair, R.; Marschang, P. Influence of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Carotid and Femoral Atherosclerotic Plaque Volume as Measured by Three-Dimensional Ultrasound. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 32.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top