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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Carotid and Femoral Atherosclerotic Plaque Volume as Measured by Three-Dimensional Ultrasound

1
Department of Internal Medicine III (Cardiology, Angiology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstr. 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
Department of Internal Medicine IV (Nephrology and Hypertension), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstr. 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Clinical centre of Traunstein, D-83278 Traunstein, Germany
4
Department of Internal Medicine, Central Hospital of Bolzano, I-39100 Bolzano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8010032
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 31 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Vascular Medicine)
Background: Atherosclerosis is a systemic multifocal disease with a preference for the branching points of the arteries. In this study, we quantitatively measured carotid and femoral plaque volume in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and/or established atherosclerotic disease using a 3D ultrasound technique. Methods: In this prospective, single-centre study, we included 404 patients (median age 64; 56.9% men) with at least one CVRF or established cardiovascular disease. Plaque volume was measured using 3D ultrasound equipped with an automated software. Results: We found a strong correlation of plaque volume with CVRF and the number of vascular beds involved. The strongest associations with total and femoral plaque volume were noted for smoking, hypertension, age, as well as for the presence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (p < 0.05). Carotid plaque volume was best predicted by hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, age, as well as the presence of cerebrovascular disease and coronary artery disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that smoking appears to be associated with total and femoral plaque volume, whereas hyperlipidaemia seems to be associated with carotid plaque volume. Measurement of 3D plaque volume is a practical and reproducible technique with the potential to become an additional screening tool in cardiovascular risk stratification. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular clinical research; ultrasound cardiovascular risk factors; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular clinical research; ultrasound
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MDPI and ACS Style

Noflatscher, M.; Schreinlechner, M.; Sommer, P.; Kerschbaum, J.; Berggren, K.; Theurl, M.; Kirchmair, R.; Marschang, P. Influence of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Carotid and Femoral Atherosclerotic Plaque Volume as Measured by Three-Dimensional Ultrasound. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 32. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8010032

AMA Style

Noflatscher M, Schreinlechner M, Sommer P, Kerschbaum J, Berggren K, Theurl M, Kirchmair R, Marschang P. Influence of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Carotid and Femoral Atherosclerotic Plaque Volume as Measured by Three-Dimensional Ultrasound. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(1):32. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8010032

Chicago/Turabian Style

Noflatscher, Maria; Schreinlechner, Michael; Sommer, Philip; Kerschbaum, Julia; Berggren, Katharina; Theurl, Markus; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Marschang, Peter. 2019. "Influence of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Carotid and Femoral Atherosclerotic Plaque Volume as Measured by Three-Dimensional Ultrasound" J. Clin. Med. 8, no. 1: 32. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8010032

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