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Triple-Layer Nanofiber Membranes for Treating High Salinity Brines Using Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

1
Environment and Water Directorate, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad 10001, Iraq
2
Inorganic Membranes, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mesa+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
3
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Rd. Unit 3222, Storrs, CT 06269-3222, USA
4
Films in Fluids, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mesa+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2019, 9(5), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9050060
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 21 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Distillation Process)
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PDF [4771 KB, uploaded 6 May 2019]
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Abstract

A composite, three-layered membrane for membrane distillation was prepared from electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers supported by commercial polyethersulfone (PES) nanofiber based nonwoven from E.I. duPont de Nemours company (DuPont). The membranes were tested in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) using a 5.0 M sodium chloride brine as a feed solution. The triple layer membrane combines the hydrophobicity of PVDF and the robustness of the PES. The triple layer membrane demonstrated excellent performance in DCMD (i.e., relatively high water flux compared to the commercial PVDF membrane and a complete salt rejection of the brine) with mechanical properties imparted by the PES layer. This work is the first to demonstrate the use of a commercially produced nanofiber nonwoven for membrane distillation. View Full-Text
Keywords: membrane distillation; triple layer composite membrane; highly concentrated solutions; PVDF; PES membrane distillation; triple layer composite membrane; highly concentrated solutions; PVDF; PES
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Al-Furaiji, M.; Arena, J.T.; Ren, J.; Benes, N.; Nijmeijer, A.; McCutcheon, J.R. Triple-Layer Nanofiber Membranes for Treating High Salinity Brines Using Direct Contact Membrane Distillation. Membranes 2019, 9, 60.

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