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Review

Natural and Synthetic Saponins as Vaccine Adjuvants

Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
Academic Editor: Heather L. Wilson
Vaccines 2021, 9(3), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9030222
Received: 15 February 2021 / Revised: 1 March 2021 / Accepted: 2 March 2021 / Published: 5 March 2021
Saponin adjuvants have been extensively studied for their use in veterinary and human vaccines. Among them, QS-21 stands out owing to its unique profile of immunostimulating activity, inducing a balanced Th1/Th2 immunity, which is valuable to a broad scope of applications in combating various microbial pathogens, cancers, and other diseases. It has recently been approved for use in human vaccines as a key component of combination adjuvants, e.g., AS01b in Shingrix® for herpes zoster. Despite its usefulness in research and clinic, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of QS-21 and other saponin adjuvants are poorly understood. Extensive efforts have been devoted to studies for understanding the mechanisms of QS-21 in different formulations and in different combinations with other adjuvants, and to medicinal chemistry studies for gaining mechanistic insights and development of practical alternatives to QS-21 that can circumvent its inherent drawbacks. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understandings of the mechanism underlying QS-21’s adjuvanticity and the encouraging results from recent structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: adjuvant; saponin; mechanism; SAR; QS-21; VSA-1; VSA-2 adjuvant; saponin; mechanism; SAR; QS-21; VSA-1; VSA-2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, P. Natural and Synthetic Saponins as Vaccine Adjuvants. Vaccines 2021, 9, 222. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9030222

AMA Style

Wang P. Natural and Synthetic Saponins as Vaccine Adjuvants. Vaccines. 2021; 9(3):222. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9030222

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Pengfei. 2021. "Natural and Synthetic Saponins as Vaccine Adjuvants" Vaccines 9, no. 3: 222. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9030222

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