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Article

Localized and Systemic Immune Responses against SARS-CoV-2 Following Mucosal Immunization

1
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
2
Pan Genome Systems, Madison, WI 53719, USA
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12211, Egypt
4
Colombia Wisconsin One Health Consortium, Universidad Nacional Medellín, Calle 75#79a 5, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hatem A. Elshabrawy
Vaccines 2021, 9(2), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020132
Received: 19 January 2021 / Revised: 31 January 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Published: 6 February 2021
The rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the USA and worldwide necessitates the development of multiple vaccines to combat the COVID-19 global pandemic. Previously, we showed that a particulate adjuvant system, quil-A-loaded chitosan (QAC) nanoparticles, can elicit robust immunity combined with plasmid vaccines when used against avian coronavirus. Here, we report on the immune responses elicited by mucosal homologous plasmid and a heterologous immunization strategy using a plasmid vaccine and a Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens. Only the heterologous intranasal immunization strategy elicited neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage of mice, suggesting a protective vaccine. The same prime/boost strategy led to the induction of type 1 and type 17 T-cell responses and polyfunctional T-cells expressing multiple type 1 cytokines (e.g., IFN-γ, TNFα, IL-2) in the lungs and spleens of vaccinated mice. In contrast, the plasmid homologous vaccine strategy led to the induction of local mono and polyfunctional T-cells secreting IFN-γ. Outcomes of this study support the potential of QAC-nano vaccines to elicit significant mucosal immune responses against respiratory coronaviruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; intranasal vaccine; nanovaccine; heterologous vaccine SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; intranasal vaccine; nanovaccine; heterologous vaccine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chandrasekar, S.S.; Phanse, Y.; Hildebrand, R.E.; Hanafy, M.; Wu, C.-W.; Hansen, C.H.; Osorio, J.E.; Suresh, M.; Talaat, A.M. Localized and Systemic Immune Responses against SARS-CoV-2 Following Mucosal Immunization. Vaccines 2021, 9, 132. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020132

AMA Style

Chandrasekar SS, Phanse Y, Hildebrand RE, Hanafy M, Wu C-W, Hansen CH, Osorio JE, Suresh M, Talaat AM. Localized and Systemic Immune Responses against SARS-CoV-2 Following Mucosal Immunization. Vaccines. 2021; 9(2):132. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020132

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chandrasekar, Shaswath S., Yashdeep Phanse, Rachel E. Hildebrand, Mostafa Hanafy, Chia-Wei Wu, Chungyi H. Hansen, Jorge E. Osorio, M. Suresh, and Adel M. Talaat. 2021. "Localized and Systemic Immune Responses against SARS-CoV-2 Following Mucosal Immunization" Vaccines 9, no. 2: 132. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020132

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