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Open AccessArticle

A Green Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization of the Natural Antioxidant and Anti-Aging Flavonolignans from Milk Thistle Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Fruits for Cosmetic Applications

1
Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures (LBLGC), INRA USC1328, Université d’Orléans, Pôle Universitaire d’Eure et Loir, 21 rue de Loigny la Bataille, F-28000 Chartres, France
2
Bioactifs et Cosmétiques, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) – Groupement de Recherche 3711, Université d’Orléans, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2, France
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 447 Sri-Ayuthaya Road, Rajathevi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
4
Inder Kumar Gujral Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala, Punjab 144603, India
5
Kota College of Pharmacy, Kota Rajasthan 325003, India
6
Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080304
Received: 20 July 2019 / Revised: 11 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
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Abstract

Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (aka milk thistle) constitutes the source of silymarin (SILM), a mixture of different flavonolignans and represents a unique model for their extraction. Here we report on the development and validation of an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method of S. marianum flavonolignans follow by their quantification using LC system. The optimal conditions of this UAE method were: aqueous EtOH 54.5% (v/v) as extraction solvent, with application of an ultrasound (US) frequency of 36.6 kHz during 60 min at 45 °C with a liquid to solid ratio of 25:1 mL/g dry weight (DW). Following its optimization using a full factorial design, the extraction method was validated according to international standards of the association of analytical communities (AOAC) to ensure precision and accuracy in the quantitation of each component of the SILM mixture. The efficiency of this UAE was compared with maceration protocol. Here, the optimized and validated conditions of the UAE allowed the highest extraction yields of SILM and its constituents in comparison to maceration. During UAE, the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was retained, as confirmed by the in vitro assays CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) and inhibition of AGEs (advanced glycation end products). The skin anti-aging potential of the extract obtained by UAE was also confirmed by the strong in vitro cell-free inhibition capacity of both collagenase and elastase. To summarize, the UAE procedure presented here is a green and efficient method for the extraction and quantification of SILM and its constituents from the fruits of S. marianum, making it possible to generate extracts with attractive antioxidant and anti-aging activities for future cosmetic applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Silybum marianum; Silymarin; flavonolignans; ultrasound-assisted extraction; design of experiment; antioxidant; anti-aging Silybum marianum; Silymarin; flavonolignans; ultrasound-assisted extraction; design of experiment; antioxidant; anti-aging
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Drouet, S.; Leclerc, E.A.; Garros, L.; Tungmunnithum, D.; Kabra, A.; Abbasi, B.H.; Lainé, É.; Hano, C. A Green Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization of the Natural Antioxidant and Anti-Aging Flavonolignans from Milk Thistle Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Fruits for Cosmetic Applications. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 304.

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