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Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants for Treatment of Hearing Loss: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan
2
Department of Otolaryngology, Tokyo Teishin Hospital, 2-14-23, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8798, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040109
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the etiologies of sensorineural hearing loss, such as age-related hearing loss, noise- and ototoxic drug-induced hearing loss, as well as hearing loss due to mitochondrial gene mutation. Mitochondria are the main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS-induced oxidative stress is involved in cochlear damage. Moreover, the release of ROS causes further damage to mitochondrial components. Antioxidants are thought to counteract the deleterious effects of ROS and thus, may be effective for the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases. The administration of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants is one of the drug delivery systems targeted to mitochondria. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are expected to help in the prevention and/or treatment of diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Of the various mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, the protective effects of MitoQ and SkQR1 against ototoxicity have been previously evaluated in animal models and/or mouse auditory cell lines. MitoQ protects against both gentamicin- and cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. SkQR1 also provides auditory protective effects against gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. On the other hand, decreasing effect of MitoQ on gentamicin-induced cell apoptosis in auditory cell lines has been controversial. No clinical studies have been reported for otoprotection using mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants. High-quality clinical trials are required to reveal the therapeutic effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in terms of otoprotection in patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; hearing loss; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species antioxidants; hearing loss; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species
MDPI and ACS Style

Fujimoto, C.; Yamasoba, T. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants for Treatment of Hearing Loss: A Systematic Review. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 109.

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