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Magnetic Source Imaging and Infant MEG: Current Trends and Technical Advances

by 1 and 1,2,*
1
Department of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
2
Center for Neurobehavioral Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(8), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9080181
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 26 July 2019 / Published: 27 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in EEG/ MEG Source Imaging)
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is known for its temporal precision and good spatial resolution in cognitive brain research. Nonetheless, it is still rarely used in developmental research, and its role in developmental cognitive neuroscience is not adequately addressed. The current review focuses on the source analysis of MEG measurement and its potential to answer critical questions on neural activation origins and patterns underlying infants’ early cognitive experience. The advantages of MEG source localization are discussed in comparison with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), two leading imaging tools for studying cognition across age. Challenges of the current MEG experimental protocols are highlighted, including measurement and data processing, which could potentially be resolved by developing and improving both software and hardware. A selection of infant MEG research in auditory, speech, vision, motor, sleep, cross-modality, and clinical application is then summarized and discussed with a focus on the source localization analyses. Based on the literature review and the advancements of the infant MEG systems and source analysis software, typical practices of infant MEG data collection and analysis are summarized as the basis for future developmental cognitive research. View Full-Text
Keywords: Magnetoencephalography (MEG); infant; cognitive development; source localization; equivalent current dipole (ECD); minimum norm estimation (MNE) Magnetoencephalography (MEG); infant; cognitive development; source localization; equivalent current dipole (ECD); minimum norm estimation (MNE)
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Kao, C.; Zhang, Y. Magnetic Source Imaging and Infant MEG: Current Trends and Technical Advances. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 181.

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Brain Sci., EISSN 2076-3425, Published by MDPI AG
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