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Efficacy of Cell-Based Therapies for Traumatic Brain Injuries

1
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
2
Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
3
Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(10), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9100270
Received: 3 September 2019 / Revised: 30 September 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell Therapy in Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a leading cause of death and disability. Additionally, growing evidence suggests a link between TBI-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disorders. Treatments for TBI patients are limited, largely focused on rehabilitation therapy, and ultimately, fail to provide long-term neuroprotective or neurorestorative benefits. Because of the prevalence of TBI and lack of viable treatments, new therapies are needed which can promote neurological recovery. Cell-based treatments are a promising avenue because of their potential to provide multiple therapeutic benefits. Cell-based therapies can promote neuroprotection via modulation of inflammation and promote neurorestoration via induction of angiogenesis and neurogenesis. Neural stem/progenitor cell transplantations have been investigated in preclinical TBI models for their ability to directly contribute to neuroregeneration, form neural-like cells, and improve recovery. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated in clinical trials through multiple different routes of administration. Intravenous administration of MSCs appears most promising, demonstrating a robust safety profile, correlation with neurological improvements, and reductions in systemic inflammation following TBI. While still preliminary, evidence suggests cell-based therapies may become a viable treatment for TBI based on their ability to promote neuroregeneration and reduce inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: traumatic brain injury; stem cells; inflammation; neuroregeneration; mesenchymal stem cells; neural stem cells traumatic brain injury; stem cells; inflammation; neuroregeneration; mesenchymal stem cells; neural stem cells
MDPI and ACS Style

Chrostek, M.R.; Fellows, E.G.; Guo, W.L.; Swanson, W.J.; Crane, A.T.; Cheeran, M.C.; Low, W.C.; Grande, A.W. Efficacy of Cell-Based Therapies for Traumatic Brain Injuries. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 270.

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